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Lecture 14

GEOG 3RW3 Lecture 14: Geography 3RW3 - Lecture 14 -

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Segei Basik

Geography 3RW3 – Dr. Basik – Page 1 Lecture 14 – Tuesday February 3 Historical Geography: The Mughal Empire, Europeans & The Road to Independence Introduction • Taj Mahal o Located in India o Built for his wife (man in first picture) o Historic facts surrounding this building o Ordered servant’s hands to be cut off upon completion of the building o Made from marble o Greatly associated with India – important cultural hub of the country o Historical geography 1. The Mughal Empire • Zahiruddin Muhammad Babur “The Tiger” (1483-1530) o The founder of the Mughal dynasty o Uzbek Turk Timurid: mother – descended from Genghis Khan, his father – descended from Timur o Famous historical person o Babur was a great conqueror in history o The Middle Eastern Mongol invaders had converted to Islam long before o They also absorbed Persian culture o The Persian word for Mongol is “Mughal” (later – English term “mogul” meaning “tycoon”) o Babur seized Afghanistan and in 1526 defeated the Sultan of Delhi o Died in 1530: conquered all of Hindustan and controlled an empire from the Deccan to Central Asia • Akbar (1556-1605) – grandson of Babur – 49 year reign o Established the first modern era Indian territorial state o Controlled the land from the Himalaya Mountains to the Godavari River in central India and from Kashmir to the Ganges Delta o Aurangzeb (1658-1707): executed his brother and had himself crowned emperor o Expanded the Moghul Empire south to Marathas in the Western Deccan o Extremely brutal policy for Non-Muslims o Second part of the 17 century – future geopolitical problems in this area today probably rooted in this period of time o Linguistic division (Urdu – elite, Arabic – Islamic scholars, Hindi – general public) o Synthesis of Indian and Persian styles in architecture o Collapse: fiscal crisis, wars, rebellions, powerful regional maharajas – disintegration of empire in 18 century • The Indian Ocean Trade increased before 1500: stimulated by the prosperity of Latin Europe, Asian and African states and by the collapse of the overland trade routes (Ottoman Empire) Geography 3RW3 – Dr. Basik – Page 2 o Indian port cities called emporias: were clearinghouses of trade, cosmopolitan centers (Calicut, Colombo) o Indians, Arabs, Chinese divided region into zones o Divided between different nations into zones o Left: Arabs and Muslims, Middle: Indians, Right: Chinese o Ocean played a very important role for international trade • Trade Goods: o Silk and porcelain from China o Spices from South East Asia o Pepper, gems, pearls, and cotton from India o Incense and horses from Arabia and South West Asia o Gold, ivory and slaves from East Africa • Europeans th th o The Arrival of Portuguese: 15 to early 16 centuries (Goa, Bombay, Colombo) – pepper trade control o Commercial Empire of Dutch, English and French Companies o The two major powers contending for control of weakened India were France and Britain o Britain established The British East India Company in 1600 o The French arrived in India in the 1670s o British controlled Bengal by defeated the Nawab (governor) of Bengal at the Battle of Plassey, north of Calcutta in 1757 o T
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