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HISTORY 1M03 (137)

11. 1M03 Feb 12, 2014.pdf

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Sean Corner

- library assignment due at tutorial when you get back - first three online passages to comment on will be posted first week after reading week - discussion questions attached asking you to analyze - will also be required in the final exam ▯ - they will be posted the monday after reading week - approach the package according to the information collected from that weeks lecture & tutorial ▯ Where you left it last week: ▯ Alexander’s Campaigns of Conquest: - to try and take all the cities of the Mediterranean cost to neutralize the Persian empire - when he reachedAnatolia someone died, and Darius decided to try and decide the fate on the field of battle Battle of Issues: - narrow space in the valley which alexander chose prevented the Persian army from effectively using their large forces ▯ After Issues: What options did Darius have? - he had other options that open battle - he could have adopted the “FortressAsia” strategy and within behind the two rivers running through Mesopotamia (especially the Tigress which would have been difficult for Alexander to ford) then waited for supply problems to forceAlex. to withdraw - but Darius had now been defeated twice and he needed to defend the honour of his throne and the integrity of his empire - it was important to him that he show his greatness in battle -decided to go for another spectacular confrontation - he had to wait for this, however, bcAlexander was more patient -Alexander remained dedicated to the strategy of securing his home front through his conquer of smaller cities to prevent the persian navy from accessing ports -Alex proceeded down to Pernicia which surrendered - but Thaius? put up resistance and when it finally fell its ppl where massacred or enslaved - Gaza also paid the same price for its resistance which slowedAlex’s advance by another 2 months - Egypt: - unwilling and rebellious subject of the Persian empire - welcomedAlexander as a new Pharaoh, a liberator from Persian rule - Once he had secured the coast, he then followed Darius - Darius raised another great army and did not defend the Tigress in order to choose the route thatAlexander must take to reach him - mimicking the strategy ofAlex at Issues - chose to fight at Gaugamela - Darius had an army of 250 000 men equipped with exotic units and weaponry (war elephants, chariots) butAlexander defeated him once again - Darius fled once more, east to the upper half of the Persian empire leaving Susa? Persephoils? (IDK) undefended -Alex was able to take the heart of Persia without fighting - Darius was assassinated by the rulers of the upper areas of Persia who appointed governor Bessus - many Persians found this unfavourable and illegitimate and defected toAlexander ▯ -AsAlexander conquered, he was deciding how to govern these vast territories that he conquered - intially- he wanted to grant autonomy to the Greek cities- allowing them to maintain a civic government under his patronage - otherwise, he maintained the Persian strucutre of borders, territories and tribute offerings - He then placed Greeks and Macedonians in charge of all non Greek satraps -Alexander burned down the palace of Persepholis - some accounts state that this was a drunken spur of the moment decision - possible it is calculated and symbolic decision and the story was spread as a ruse - symbolic of the way they burnedAthens - Still important to remember what a great loss of architecture and artwork was destroyed in this act- jewel of the Persian Empire ▯ -After this point, alex began to try to adopt a new representation of himself - with Darius dead and the Persians following the usurper, alex took advantage and declared himself the natural n
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