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1A03 FULL Lecture Notes.docx

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Krista Howarth

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Study Notes 9/6/2012 10:13:00 PM Limb Bud development – 28 days - arm bud develops first then leg bud - apical ectodermal ridge – thickening of ectoderm stimulates outward growth - limbs grow proximal to distal - Thalidomide – stopped blood vessels from forming, altered limb development Facial Development – 28 days - frontonasal process – frontal bone - maxillary process (2) – upper jaw - mandibular process (2) – lower jaw maxillary and mandibular move towards mid-line and fuse cleft palate improper fusion of mandibular processes Muscle Myoblasts – derived from the somites (mesodermal), early embryonic cells that develop into skeletal muscle fibres Nervous System Derived from neural tube and neural crest cells Circulatory System Blood islands – surface of yolk sac and inside embryo Mesoderm – blood vessels on the outside/inside expand and fuse forming the circulatory system - middle cells of blood islands will form blood cells of cardiovascular system - outside cells of blood islands will become walls of cardiovascular system - blood islands form two parallel tubes and fuse together to form PRIMITIVE HEART TUBE – signaled to form by endoderm 1. Sinus venosus 2. Atria 3. Ventricle 4. Bulbus cordis ** its coincidence that there are 4 dilations and 4 chambers, NOT all related Atrium will eventually twist sideways Ventricle will eventually bend anteriorly Contractions begin at the end of the 3 rdweek Heart Development – 46-50 days - blood is not sent to the right ventricle in the fetal heart because the lungs are not functioning instead, blood is sent from the right atrium to the left atrium through the foramen ovale made of the septum secundum R, septum primum L wall of the primitive heart tube forms into the interventricular septum at birth, foramen ovale closes due to increased pressure in the left atrium Bulbus cordis – becomes the big vessels that come out of the trunk Sinus venosus – becomes the inferior and superior vena cava Respiratory System – 28 days Lungs begin as a single mid-line evagination of the fore-gut lung buds branch off the developing trachea 35 days – branching of bronchi continues for up to 17 generations Urinary System – 21 days Mesoderm differentiates into pronephros ( not functional) Mesonephros – caudal extension of the pronephros ( filtration of blood) Cloaca develops from the mesonephros 56 days – developed urorectal septum – separates rectum and urethra allantois – proximal portion enlarges to become bladder, rest degenerates mesonephros degenerates – metanephros develops (mature kidney) ** mesonephric ducts remain in males, but the ducts degenerate in both ureters – develop from metanephros and join urinary bladder Reproductive System Gonadal ridge – contain primordial germ cells that migrate from surface of yolk sac to become sperm and oocyte and primitive germ cells Male Testes – descend into the scrotum Testosterone – secreted by testes cause mesonephric duct to differentiate into the male structures Mullerian inhibiting hormone – secreted by testes – causes paramesonephric ducts to degenerate Dihydrotestosterone hormone causes male reproductive system to occur Female Ovaries – descend into pelvis Before birth 1. Ductus arteriosus – diverts blood back to heart 2. Foramen ovale – diverts flow from lungs (high press in right atria) 3. Ductus venosus diverts flow from liver 4. Oxygen rich blood goes to the fetus by the umbilical vein 5. Oxygen poor blood goes from fetus thru umbilical arteries Changes at birth 1. Air enters lungs – forces blood into pulmonary arteries 2. Foramen ovale closes as pressure builds in left atria 3. Ductus venosus degenerates 4. Umbilical vein degenerates 5. Umbilical arteries degenerate TISSUES AND NERVOUS SYSTEM TEST Connective Tissue Abundant – found in every organ Made of cells separated by extracellular matrix - Not found on external surfaces of body - Most has a blood supply (tendons limited) - Cartilage does not have blood supply - MOST connective and epithelial tissue is supplied with nerves Cells of C.T Suffixes… Blasts: create/produce the extracellular matrix Cytes: maintain the matrix, sometimes simply mature blast cells ie chrondrocyte Clasts: break down the matrix fro remodeling ie osteoclasts, come from same cell line as white blood cells Also found in connective tissue are macrophage cells and WBC Extracellular Matrix Stuff outside the cells, contains proteins The type of protein that dominates the connective tissue determines the name of the tissue (lots of collagen protein – collagenous tissue) Proteins Collagen – most common protein, strong flexible and INELASTIC, 25% of your body, large bundles Reticular – fills spaces b/w tissues and organs. Made up of collagen but different structure – smaller bundles surrounded by a glycoprotein Fine collagenous, forms branching networks Elastic – elasticity… made of elastin and glycoprotein fibrilen. has protein elastin molecules that look like coiled springs, cross-linked molecules. Marphan syndrome is when the coating isn’t formed right and the fibres don’t snap back like they should but break. Other matrix stuff Common molecules are called ground substance and include the following: Hyaluronic Acid: polysaccharide lubricant. Found in vitreous humor of eye, synovial joints (knee joint), makes stuff slippery so it doesn’t rub Proteoglycans: protein/polysaccharide. Protein part attaches to hyaluronic acid. Traps a lot of water – draws it to outside of C.T, helps determine structure. Adhesive molecules: holds proteoglycans together. Cartilage – Chondronectin Bone – Osteonectin Fibrous C.T. – fibronectin Adult Connective Tissues Connective Tissue Proper Loose (areolar) – loose collagen fibres Dense – thick bundles.. its dense.. Supporting C.T. - Cartilage - Bone Fluid C.T. - Blood LOOSE AREOLAR TISSUE – “stroma” Structure: cells w/in a network of mostly collagen fibres - fibroblasts - macrophages - lymphocytes - adipose cells - mast cells Function: loose packing, support, nourishment for associated structures. Attaches skin to underlying tissues. Location: throughout bod, this is where epithelial basement membranes rest. Packing b/w glands muscles and nerves. Under the dermis Other names: Superficial fascia Subcutaneous layer Hypodermis Made of: collagen, reticular, elastic fibres & all types of cells *** regular tissue will stretch in the direction it is built for irregular will be stretched in every direction. C.T w/ SPECIAL PROPERTIES: ADIPOSE Adipocytes – specialized fibroblasts, can store triglycerides - looks like empty cells b/c full of lipids that cytoplasm is pushed to outside. Yellow: white at birth. Most abundant. - turns yellow with age with accumulation of pigments such as carotene – plant protein can be metabolized into vitamin A. Brown: in fetus. found in specific areas: armpits (axillae), neck and near kidneys. Color comes from cytochrome pigments. Polygon shape, round nuclei. Function: packing material, thermal insulator, energy storage, protection of organs C.T w/ SPECIAL PROPERTIES: RETICULAR Structure: fine network of reticular fibres and cells, irregular. Function: superstructure for lymphatic and hemopoietic tissues Location: lymph nodes, spleen and bone marrow DENSE REGULAR COLLAGENOUS TISSUE Structure: abundant collagen fibres that resist stretching, same direction Function: withstands great force in direction of fibre orientation, good resistance Location: Tendons: muscle to bone (may not be parallel) circle bundles Ligaments: bone to bone – less compact, flattened sheets/bands DENSE REGULAR ELASTIC C.T. - contains collagen but still have elasticity Structure: regular collagen fibres and elastin fibres Function: stretching and recoiling, in the direction of fibre orientation Location: ligaments b/w vertebrae, dorsal aspect of neck, nuchal ligaments in vocal folds. **collagen fibres give strength to the tissue (for when you shout) but there are more elastic fibres. DENSE IRREGULAR COLLAGENOUS TISSUE Structure: collagen fibres running in all directions Function: great strength can withstand stretching in all directions Location: innermost layer of dermis, scars, outer covering of body tubes, capsules of kidney and spleen DENSE IRREGULAR ELASTIC CONNECTIVE TISSUE Structure: composed of bundles and sheets of collagenous/elastin fibres in all directions. Function: strength with stretching/recoil in many directions Location: walls of elastic arteries – closer to the heart, aorta/carotid arteries SUPPORTING C.T: CARTILAGE - chondrocytes located in lacunae - next to bone, firmest structure in the body - found in areas b/w bones - Ground substance: proteoglycans and hyaluronic acis complexed together trap large amounts of water. - no nerve supply. Heals slowly. - surrounded by perichondrium – dense irregular C.T . Fibroblasts of perichondrium can differentiate into chrondroblasts that secrete ECM to continue making cartilage. HYALINE Cartilage Structure: evenly distributed proteoglycan matrix of collagen fibres - distinguished by open spaces b/w cells where fibres aren’t visible Function: allows growth of long bones, rigidity with some flexibility, forms embryonic skeleton. Location: growing long bones, cartilage rings of resp. system, trcostal cartilage of ribs, nasal cartilages, articulating surface of bones, embryonic skeleton FIBROCartilage Structure: collagenous fibres, more numerous than other cartilages, arranged in thick bundles, tough Function: somewhat flexible, can withstand PRESSURE, Location: intervertebral disks, symphysis pubis, articular disks (knee/jaw) High pressure areas Elastic Cartilage Structure: elastic and collagen fibers embedded in proteoglycans. Rigid but elastic properties. Functions: rigidity, with more flexibility than hyaline cartilage. Locations: external ears, epiglottis, auditory tubes SUPPORTING C.T: BONE Composed of osteoblasts, osteocytes and osteoclasts - extracellular material is mineralized – makes bones hard - bones still have some collagen fibres, some flexibility matrix: gives strength and rigidity, allows bone to support and protect other tissues and organs organic: collagen fibers inorganic: hydroxyapatite ( Lab 1 / Nervous System / Brain / Cranial Nerves NEURONS Sensory/Afferent: action potentials towards CNS Motor/Efferent: action potentials away from CNS - autonomic motor neuron goes to smooth or cardiac muscle - somatic motor neuron goes to skeletal muscle Interneurons/association neurons: within CNS from one neuron to another Multipolar: many dendrites, 1 axon – (neurons in CNS and motor) Bipolar: 1 dendrite, 1 axon – sensory organs (ie eyes) Unipolar: single process extending from cell body (sensory neurons) – divides in 2 branches - portion extending to periphery has dendrite like sensory - may be specialized for a certain sense of the body SUPPORTING CELLS OF CNS Neuroglia Make up about 50% of weight of brain 4 types: ASTROCYTES  star shaped  cytoplasmic extensions branch to form foot processes that wrap around structures in CNS  surface of blood vessels, neurons and pia mater (connective tissue layer of CNS)  releases chemicals to form tight junctions b/w endothelial cells of capillaries  blood brain barrier- protects against toxic substances EPENDYMAL  lines ventricles of brain and central canal of spinal cord  helps form choroid plexus – produces CSF  cilia – helps move CSF thru ventricles  originally line inside of neural tube MICROGLIA  specialized macrophages in CNS  phagocytic – inflammation  looks like astrocytes but doesn’t wrap around stuff  engulfs dieing tissue, microorganisms/foreign substances invading CNS OLIGODENDROCYTES  brain or spinal cord  cytoplasmic extensions that surround axons  forms myelin sheaths around portions of several axons  improves electrical signal conduction SUPPORTING CELLS OF PNS SCHWANN CELLS - wrap around axons, can only wrap one neuron - forms myelin sheath around a portion of only one axon SATELLITE CELLS - unipolar neuron - surrounds neural cell body in ganglia - provides nutrients to cell body - only exists in PNS **Multiple Sclerosis: myelin gets attacked by immune (microglia) cells, myelin sheath begins to disappear, slow transmission of electrical signals myelinated: multiple wrappings with nodes of ranvier, conduct signals rapidly unmyelinated: not a complete or multiple layer wrapping ORGANIZATION OF Nervous Tissue White Matter: myelinated axons. Nerve tracts transport action potentials from one area in CNS to another Gray Matter: unmyelinated axons. More collections of nerve cell bodies, dendrites, neuroglia. Integrative functions In brain gray is outer cortex as well as inner nuclei, white is deeper. In spinal cord white is outer gray is deeper OPPOSITE! CRANIAL NERVES PNS Can have one+ of these functions: - sensory - somatic motor (skeletal muscles) – descending impulses - parasympathetic (glands, smooth muscle, cardiac muscle) - come from brain Distribution: - 2 pairs arise from cerebrum (I) or diencephalon (II) - 9 pairs from brain stem - 1 pair from spinal cord Names: Oh Once One Takes The Anatomy Final Very Good Vacations Are Heavenly Functions: Some Say Marry Money, But My Brother Says Big Brains Matter More Olfactory Bulb I Sensory smell cerebrum Optic II Sensory vision diencephalon Oculomotor III Motor Eyeball movement Upper eyelid, PS:pupil, SM: proprioception Trochlear IV Motor Eyeball diagonal Trigeminal V Both Sensory facial info S: ophthalmic, SM: mastication maxillary SM: mandibular Abducens VI Motor Eyeball lateral Lateral rectus muscle Facial VII Both S: taste M: facial expression PS: salivary/lacrimal Vestibulocochlear VIII Sensory Hearing/balance Glossopharyngeal IX Both S:taste M:swallow Regulation of BP – PS:parotid gland carotid artery Vagus X Both S:BP, taste M:voice, Reflexes! swallowing PS:GI,Resp Accessory XI Motor Swallowing, head movements Hypoglossal XII Motor Speech/swallowing Vagus: Reflexes having to do with heart rate, blood pressure and respiration. - reflexes involving both cranial nerves and brainstem  turning eyes toward sudden noise, touch on skin, flash of light  eyes tracking a moving object  reflec using VIII, V and VII to contract muscles associated with middle ear that protect ear ossicles  chewing reactions to textures of food, movement of tongue pushing food under tooth-row and out of harm’s way BRAIN Brainstem: connects spinal cord to brain, integration of reflexes necessary for survival (coughing, sneezing etc) - midbrain - pons - medulla oblongata Cerebellum: locomotion, balance, posture, coordination Diencephalon: thalamus, subthalamus, epithalamus, hypothalamus Cerebrum: conscious thought, control ** portion of the neural tube furthest from the cephalic end with become medulla oblongataponsmidbrain BRAINSTEM Medulla Oblongata - transmits ascending(afferent) and descending(efferent) impulses b/w brain and spinal cord - pyramids: nerve tracts-conscious control of skeletal muscle, only DESCENDING, 90% of signals cross over - center for vital reflexes, HR, BP, RESP, swallowing, coughing, sneezing - can influence heart beat but does not control it - olives: nuclei involved in balance, coordination, modulation of sound - cranial nerves: V, IX, X, XI, XII Pons - ascending and descending nerve tracts - nuclei - sleep centre/respiratory center - anterior: pontine nuclei, communication b/w cerebrum-cerebellum - posterior: nuclei of cranial nerves: V, VI, VII, VIII, IX Midbrain - most superior - cranial nerves III, IV, V - tectum: 4 nuclei form mounds called colliculi - superior colliculi – visual reflexes – tracking, pupil reflex, lens shape - inferior colliculi – hearing – startle reflex Reticular Formation - group of nuclei scattered throughout brainstem - controls cyclic activities ie. Sleep-wake (boot up system) CEREBELLUM - white mater deep (arbor vitae) - 50% of neurons - monitoring and correcting station for movement - superior/middle/inferior cerebellar peduncle 3 regions: 1. flocculonodular – balance 2. vermis – gross motor coordination (anterior), fine motor coordination (posterior) 3. lateral hemisphere – fine motor coordination The rest of the brain stuff DIENCEPHALON  between brainstem and cerebrum  regulates hormones, day and night cycle, HR etc..  sensory info from outside the body goes to the diencephalon  Thalamus – largest, superior  Subthalamus – below thalamus  Epithalamus – superior/posterior to thalamus  Hypothalamus – anterior inferior side of dienc.  That Stupid Effing Hypocrite Thalamus o oval shape, largest, anterior superior roof of dienc. o Lateral portions connected by interthalamic adhesion – surrounded by third ventricle o Receives major portion of sensory input – projections to cerebral cortex o Auditory impulses: medial geniculate nucleus o Visual impulses: lateral geniculate nucleus Subthalamus  Inferior to thalamus o ascending and descending nerve tracts o subthalamic nuclei – controlling motor function Epithalamus o on the roof of 3rd ventricle o habenula – emotional and visceral (bad memories) responses to odor o Pineal gland – puberty, melatonin regulating day/night cycle Hypothalamus o most inferior o contains 12+ different types of nuclei w/ different body functions o link b/w NERVOUS—ENDOCRINE o infundibulum – connects HYPO—PITUITARY o makes hormones and sends them to pituitary. o Mood and emotion – think hormones during period   ie thirst, hunger, body temp, sex drive, digestion and respiration   explains why when your moody you wanna eat food CEREBRUM Cerebral Cortex – outer (gray matter) Gray matter – collections of nuclei and cell bodies LOBES  FRONTAL – motor function, aggression, mood  TEMPORAL – olfactory, auditory input, memory  OCCIPITAL – reception and integration of visual input  PARIETAL – touch, taste, pressure, blood pH Basal Nuclei – connects motor function to rest of cerebrum Pre-central gyrus (primary motor cortex) Post-central gyrus (sensory cortex) Cerebral Medulla – in b/w (white matter) - nerve tracts connect cortex to other areas of cortex or CNS - association fibres – connect areas of cerebral cortex w/in same hemisphere - commissural fibers –connect cerebral hemispheres(corpus callosum) - projection fibers – b/w cerebrum and other parts of brain/spinal cord (internal capsule) Meninges Periosteal dura, meningeal dura [DURA MATER] Subdural space Arachnoid mater Subarachnoid space Pia mater cerebrum Ventricles Lateral ventricle – 2 horn shaped spaces Third ventricle Fourth ventricle – where the pons and medulla meet connected by cerebral aquaduct Cerebrospinal Fluid - lacks proteins contains glucose and other nutrients - bathes and protects brain and spinal cord - synthesized in choroid plexus – lateral ventricles - choroid plexus – ependymal cells, connective tissue, capillary containing blood SPINAL CORD AND SPINAL NERVES SPINAL CORD - made of nervous tissue, links brain to the PNS - kept in place by the meninges - from foramen magnum to L2 - stops growing at 4-5 years - ―major highway‖ everything converges to get to brain - integrated sensory/motor and produces responses - 31 pairs of spinal nerves - not uniform in diameter - cervical and lumbosacral enlargements - conus medullaris – inferior end of spinal cord - lower limb nerves – exit LS enlargement – vertebral canal – foramina WHITE MATTER – two halves, three columns in each half, each column subdivided into nerve tracts called fasciculi ascending and descending tracts – myelinated axons GRAY MATTER – posterior, anterior and lateral horns - lateral horns – ANS - Posterior horns – SENSORY NEURONS - Anterior horns – MOTOR NEURONS - Gray & white commisures – axons cross from one end of SC to other - Central canal – centre of the gray commissure MENINGES - continuous with the brain down thru spinal cord - epidural space – filled with fat and blood vessels, protects SC - dura mater – most superficial, dense irregular connective tissue, continuous with brain and epineurium of spinal nerves - Arachnoid mater – thin, avascular, collagen - Subarachnoid space - contains CSF - Pia mater – DEEPEST layer, tight to SC, has denticulate ligaments that extend towards dura mater and connect in b/w each spinal nerve exit - Filum terminale – prevents superior and inferior movement of SC Dorsal Root –sensory neurons entering SC Dorsal root ganglion – the bulge – pseudounipolar cell bodies Ventral root – all motor neurons that EXIT SC Rootlets – from spinal nerve ORGANIZATION IN THE SPINAL CORD – crazy stuff Sensory neurons pass into posterior horn Synapse with interneurons or enter white matter and ascend or descend SC Motor neurons exit the ventral root via anterior horn POLIO – degeneration of gray matter in anterior horn, attacks motor neurons – motor loss and paralysis ALS – ―lou garricks‖ attacks motor neurons in brain and SC, can’t speak swallow or breathe SPINAL NERVES 31 pairs - 1 pair exit vertebral column b/w skull and C1 - 4 pairs exit via sacral foramina - others exit thru interverterbral foramina - 8 cervical, 12, thoracic, 5 lumbar, 1 coccygeal (in pairs) - arise from rootlets along dorsal and ventral surfaces of SC - 6-8 rootlets - ventral and dorsal roots – pass thru subarachnoid space, pierce arachnoid and dura mater and join to form a spinal nerve - th NAMED for the vertebrae BENEATH, then at C7 8 nerve exits below it, then swaps and they are named for the vertebra ABOVE Diaphragm movement  neck and shoulder movement  rib movement, vertebral column movement, posture  hip movement  lower limb movement Dorsal Ramus: innervate deep muscles of the trunk responsible for vertebral column movement Ventral Ramus: thoracic region: form intercostal nerves VR of C1-C4 = CERVICAL PLEXUS VR of C5-T1 = BRACHIAL PLEXUS VR of L1-L4 = LUMBAR PLEXUS VR of L4-S4 = SACRAL PLEXUS VR of S5 and Co = COCCYGEAL PLEXUS Peripheral Nerves - both sensory and motor actions are combined - Epineurium – ―sleeves‖ continuous with dura mater - Perineurium – holds together fascicle - Axons, Schwann cells, connective tissue CERVICAL PLEXUS - supplies superficial neck structures, skin of neck, posterior head - phrenic nerve from C3-C5 - supplies ( innervate ) diaphragm ie breathing BRACHIAL PLEXUS - 3 trunks - 6 divisions - 3 cords - 5 branches 1. axillary 2. radial 3. musculocutaneous 4. ulnar 5. median LUMBOSACRAL PLEXUS - L1-L4: lumbar plexus - L4-S4: sacral plexus - 4 major nerves exit and enter lower limb 1. obturator 2. femoral lateral abdominal walls, external genitals 3. tibial 4. common fibular (peroneal) Sciatic nerve (largest nerve) COCCYGEAL PLEXUS - S5-Co; coccygeal nerve - Muscles of pelvic floor - Sensory information from skin over coccyx Membrane Potential - potential for an electrical signal to happen - difference in charge across a membrane - every tissue has a phospholipid bilayer but not all of them are electrically excitable Electrical Signals Cells produce electric signals called action potentials Transfer of information - ionic concentration differences across plasma membrane and permeability of membrane - alike charges repel and unlike attract - anion = negative - proteins - cation = positive – potassium and sodium Na K - sparation of charge – potential difference MEMBRANE POTENTIAL Concentration Gradient maintained by Na+/K+ pump - active transport 2 K+ in and 3 Na+ out - ATP is required to pump ions against concentration gradient Two types of ion channels: Leak – non gated ion channels always open – resting membrane potential Gated – ion channels open and close – action potential only open during a stimulus 1. Ligand Gated – neurotransmitter binds to ligand gate, allows ions to move thru 2. Voltage Gated – open during a charge difference, senses changes in permeability 3. Other Gated – mechanical gates that physically open (inner ear/temperature gates) Permeability - # of open channels, size of ions, # of gated channels Resting Potential - established when movement of K+ out of the cell is equal to K+ movement into the cell. - Na/K pumps 3 Na out of cell, 2 K into the cell. - Outside of cell becomes + charge – POLAR - Eventually inside becomes so negative, K attracted back inside the cell to reach equilibrium. CHARACTERISTICS  Conc. of K is higher inside cell than outside  Conc. of Na is higher outside cell than inside  Plasma membrane is 50-100x more permeable to K than Na  Plasma membrane impermeable to large intracellular negative ions such as proteins  K ions diffuse across plasma membrane from inside to outside  RMP proportional to potential for K to diffuse out of cell but not to actual rate of flow for K Electric Signals Local or graded – change in membrane potential localized to one part of the membrane – ligand gated channel Action potentials – spread along axon LOCAL/GRADED - ligand gated channel - sensitive to stimul
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