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Lecture 1

KINESIOL 1AA3 Lecture 1: heart

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Department
Kinesiology
Course
KINESIOL 1AA3
Professor
Kim Dej
Semester
Winter

Description
1/9/2017 3:09:00 AM Heart lies obliquely in the mediastinum (base to right, apex to left) Delays ap between atria and atrioventricular bundle called av node Conduction of cardiac activity in cells by intercalated discs and gap junctions 3 veins  right atrium  tricuspid valve  right ventricle  pulmonary valve  pulmonary trunk and arteries  pulmonary capillaries  pulmonary veins  left atrium  bicuspid valve  left ventricle  aortic valve  aortic and systemic arteries  systemic capillaries from atrium to ventricle is a valve valves are 3, 2, 1 18 1 coronary sinus 2 inferior vena cava 3 superior vena cava 4 right atrium 5 tricuspid valve 6 right ventricle 7 pulmonary valve 8 pulmonary trunk 9 pulmonary arteries 10 pulmonary capillaries 11 pulmonary veins 12 left atrium 13 bicuspid valve 14 left ventricle 15 aortic valve 16 aortic arteries 17 systemic arteries 18 systemic capillaries 1/9/2017 3:09:00 AM Location of heart • Heart rests on diaphragm • Heart lies in mediastinum (sternum to vertebral column, from first rib to diaphragm and between lungs) • Most of mass of heart lies to left of body’s midline (2/3) Features of heart • Apex: tip of cone, left ventricle, rests on diaphragm, anterior/inferior/left • Base: opposite apex, posterior o Formed by atria (mostly left atrium) • Anterior surface: deep to sternum and ribs • Inferior surface: between apex and right surface, rests mostly on diaphragm • Right surface: faces right lung, extends from inferior surface to base • Left surface: faces left lung, extends from base to apex Pericardium: membrane surrounding and protecting heart, confines heart to its position in mediastinum, allows movement for contraction, • Fibrous pericardium: tough, inelastic, dense irregular connective tissue o resembles a bag that rests on diaphragm o open end is fused to connective tissues of blood vessels o near apex: fused to central tendon in diaphragm, to move heart during breathing o prevents overstretching of heart, anchors heart in mediastinum • Serous pericardium: deeper, thinner, delicate membrane forming double layer around heart o Outer parietal layer: fused to fibrous pericardium o Inner visceral layer/epicardium: layer of heart, adheres tightly to surface of heart o Pericardial cavity: space (mm) between visceral and parietal layers of pericardium that contains pericardial fluid o Pericardial fluid: slippery serous fluid secreted by pericardial cells, reduces friction between layers as heart moves Layers of heart wall • Epicardium: external layer, smooth and slippery texture to outermost layer of heart, contains blood vessels, lympathics, vessels that supply myocardium, composed of two layers o Visceral layer of serous pericardium: thin, transparent outer layer composed of mesothelium, o Fibroelastic tissue and adipose tissue layer: adipose tissue becomes thickest over ventricular surfaces, houses major coronary and cardiac vessels of heart • Myocardium: middle layer of heart wall, made of cardiac muscle tissue, makes up 95% of heart wall, responsible for pumping action of heart o Cardiac muscle fibres organized in bundles that swirl diagonally around heart, generate strong pumping actions, involuntary • Endocardium: inner layer of heart wall, composed of endothelium and smooth muscle, lines inside of heart, covers valves and tendons that hold valves open, smooth lining minimizes friction as blood passes through heart, lining is continuous with blood vessels attached to heart Clinical connection • Myocarditis: inflammation of myocardium, because of viral infection/fever/radiation/chemicals o No symptoms (fever, fatigue, chest pain, irregular heartbeat, joint pain, breathlessness) • Endocarditis: inflammation of endocardium, heart valves Chambers of the heart • Atria: two superior receiving chambers o Receive blood from veins (return blood to heart) • Ventricles: two inferior pumping chambers o Eject blood from heart into arteries (away from heart) • Auricle: wrinkled, pouch like structures on anterior surface of each atrium, looks like a dog’s ear, increases capacity of atrium so it can hold greater volume of blood • Sulci: grooves that contain coronary blood vessels and fat o Deep coronary sulcus: encircles most of heart, boundary between superior atria and inferior ventricles o Anterior interventricular sulcus: shallow groove on anterior surface of heart, boundary between right and left ventricles, continues with posterior interventricular sulcus o Posterior interventricular sulc
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