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Kin 3K03: Sports Injuries (Elbow Summary)

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McMaster University
Krista M Baker

Sports Injuries: Kin 3K03 ELBOW Three Joints - Radius and ulna - Humerus and radius - Humerus and ulna  All share a common capsule Superficial Nerves  Nerves are very exposed and very easy to damage  Radial nerve, median nerve (anterior side), ulnar nerve (funny bone nerve)  Radial and ulnar are the most exposed Bony Stability o Very stable joint – needs a lot of force to injure it o Most of stability comes from ulna (olecranon process) MOI • Valgus stress - FOOSH or not, it’s not very critical to injury. Axial load is not necessary. - Stretch medial (stretching of capsule; traction and damage of ulnar nerve, MCL, LCL of elbow), compress lateral capetulum (radial head into humerus – can cause fracture) - Vulnerable tissues? (ulnar nerve, MCL, LCL) • Hyperextension - Vulnerable tissues? (muscle-tendon)  Active can damage biceps, passive can damage MCL and anterior capsule of elbow  Bone: during hyperextension, olecranon process will go under compression, have risk of fracture - Dislocation is more common with hyperextension rather than valgus MCL Sprain 1. Sprain signs and symptoms - Swelling, pain 2. Muscle guarding by - Biceps (flexors) go into muscle guarding mode and don’t allow full elbow extension (good thing b/c MCL would be stretched in full extension) 3. Aggravated by: ROM and ADL - Extension, flexion if joint is swollen - Activities of daily living: lifting things, putting weight on the joint, putting knee through a backpack loop 4. Neural symptoms - Associated with ulnar nerve - Inflammation mode, this affects entire capsule & can cause nerve to be inflamed - However, this symptom of tingling will dissipate if it’s just affected by inflammatory chemicals (prostaglandin, etc.) 5. Repetitive snapping - Ulnar nerve can sometimes become loose within elbow joint (b/c it is so superficial) and can snap back and forth over medial epicondyle. (usually not just MCL sprain) Elbow Dislocation 1. Significant pain and deformity; elbow dislocation is rare Sports Injuries: Kin 3K03 2. Disruption of equilateral triangle - Triangle forms b/w condyles of elbow, olecranon will be out of place in dislocation - You can see gap of olecranon fossa 3. Neurovascular compromise possible - Which nerves? (median & ulnar nerve) - Dislocated elbow may cause loss of circulation to distal ends 4. Reduction required - Need to be treated at hospital every time, usually under anaesthesia Care • Resistance exercise for: o Biceps and
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