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LABRST 1A03 (334)
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Lecture 3

Labour Studies - Lecture 3 Notes.docx

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McMaster University
Labour Studies
David Goutor

Timing of First Industrial Revolution  Started in 1750s: Britain (the first)  Early 1800s: United States, Northern France, parts of Germany  1850s-1860s: Canada (developed later) Canada’s Political and Economic Background  Confederation – 1867 o Ontario, Quebec, Maritimes  Main Goal: confederation will spur development o Territory: settlement in the west o Economics: industry and commerce were not developing as fast as British leaders and Canadian colonial leaders wanted o Bringing all colonies together may spur this along  Federal politics: era of conservative dominance o Sir John A. MacDonald o Prime minister  Ontario Politics: liberals dominate o Oliver Mowat, Ontario Premier 1872-96  Results of plans for growth? Disappointment o Settlement was slow o Climate and cultivation problems o Riel Rebellion o Economy did not grow at the rate people wanted it to  World economy o Depressions o The “long depression” (1873-1896) o Expected economy to start in 70s but then there was depression Drivers of Revolution  Generally FOUR factors drive innovation: 1. Communication 2. Transportation 3. Technology 4. Technique  1 industrial revolution: transportation and technique are the biggest in Canada Communication  Telegraph and long distance cable  Spreads industrial and economic growth  Breaks bond of human movements and information movement  Key in communicating information o News o Business: prices, demand, supply, etc.  Allows for the spread of information to happen in a much faster way  Before cable: information could only move as fast as humans could move  Trans-Atlantic cable made information able to transmit across Atlantic in 3minutes versus the 12 days it took before Transportation  Canals  Railways (made transportation over land much easier/faster)  Allow development especially for communities not near waterways  Impacts o Reduce isolation of communities/markets o They do not only have to depend on themselves o Open producers up to competition Technology  Power sources o Steam power allowed people to produce their own power  New machines and industries o Railways again Technique  Reorganizing work o New methods o New structure to work o New work experience How does this all unfold?  Economists: different “paths to industrialization”  Four main ones in 1 industrial revolution: 1. Small shop to factory 2. Mechanisms Small Shop to Factory  Back to Master craftsman’s shop  Transportation innovations  Now much more imported goods are coming in  Original shops are now competing with things that are brought in from other places that are now cheaper  Imported goods used to be way more expensive than locally made  Now it is easier to ship so imported goods often cheaper  Pressures from imports  (They can also ship their stuff out now) Change into Factory  Steps 1. Speed up in production and needed more supplies 2. Role of Merchants becomes greater because they are the ones that have best access to supply networks and transportation networks 3. Expansion of shops (bring in more people to do work, cleaning, grunt work, etc. – work becomes much more impersonal) 4. Relocation (shops are too small for the expanding business - moved to merchants store) 5. Factory Change into Factory (Cont.)  Fate of Master craftsman  The status of the Master craftsman disappears  Most of them are demoted to journeymen  Sometimes Master craftsman can become on the business side if they make a deal with the merchant to share the business  Journeymen no longer had the fate of becoming a Master craftsman one day  Mentoring role to the apprentices disappears as well Mechanism  New machines: 1 industrial revolution  Machines were now steam powered  Ex. steam powered looms  Workers did not have to do the work now they just had to operate the machines New Industries  Making things you could not make before  #1 was the railway o Allowed hidden demand to be found o Large players were now recognized  Factors in development: o Luck o Government  Spin-off industries: steel Development in Staple Industries  Increased fishing  Very limited but high impact due to scale o “Squaring Timber” o Instead of round logs now there were square logs o Much more efficient to ship and use  Canada’s capacity to do more of the processing before it is shipped away is increased New Working World in Factories  New roles o Breaking down of tasks o Pre-industrial era: product made “start to finish” by one worker o Industrial era: tasks broken down and divided up so instead of doing one thing from start to finish one worker has a smaller role so they have a more repetitive job o
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