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PHILOS 2YY3 Lecture Notes - Fecundity, Jeremy Bentham, Monism

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V Igneski

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Philo 2YY3 Lecture Sept 25, 2012
Value: What is the Good?
What counts as valuable?
Some important distinctions:
o The good vs the right
o Intrinsic value vs instrumental value
Intrinsic value-Its good in itself, not because it leads to any
Something has instrumental value if it leads to something else
we value (i.e exercise helps me be active but then I gain
another value which is make me happy at the end)
o Subjective vs objective
Objective state of the world
Subjective is where we value it in our heads
An impact on us or our experiences
o Agent-relative vs agent-neutral
Agent-relative to the person and agent
Something that is valuable through your perspective
Agent-neutral- gods eye view, value not dependent on a
particular person but from this god’s eye view that things have
o Monism vs pluralism
Monistic- pleasure is value, everything is value if only leads to
Pluralism believes that everything is intrinsic valuable, they
will conflict with each other but need to figure out how to fix
Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832)
o Normative theory a tool for social and legal reform
Pleasure is the only things that we value intrinsically
o Principle of utility: an act is right “according to the tendency which it
appears to have to argument or diminish the happiness of the party
whose interest is in questions” (120)
Actions is right in so far it implements happiness and pleasure
and then based on that find out if it causes pain or was wrong
Bentham’s Hedonism
Pleasure as the only intrinsic value
“Benefit, advantage, pleasure, good, happiness… comes to the same thing”
Prevention of pain, evil, unhappiness
Sensation, psychological state, satisfaction
About motivation and value
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