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lecture 5b federalism II.doc

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Political Science
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Todd Alway

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Political Science 1G06 2013 II Lecture 5b Federal Politics - Why did Canada develop as a federation rather than a unitary state? - Juridical Federalism reflects the distinct linguistic, cultural, and social differences in Canada - Particularly between English Canada and French Canada - One of the key questions coming out of this social reality is the question: - Is Quebec one province amongst many or a separate nation? - And if so, can the Quebec nation realize its aspirations inside of a federal Canada? - Unlike the case with the Constitution Act, 1982, Quebec was a willing participant in The Constitution Act, 1867 - However, the ability of the rest of Canada to protect French interests was quickly put to the test following Confederation - 1. Riel Rebellions (1870, 1885) - - 2. Bilingualism in Manitoba (1890) - 3. Bilingualism in Ontario: Regulation 17 (1913) - 4. Conscription in WWI - 5. Conscription in WWII - All these developments tended to indicate that the interests of Francophones, both outside Quebec and within, were not well protected where Anglophone majorities controlled political power - Having said this, nationalism in Quebec is not solely an externally induced phenomenon - Developments internal to Quebec have also played a significant role in bringing Quebec’s assertion of national distinctiveness to the forefront of the Provincial agenda, as well as to the top of the National agenda - Developments internal to Quebec: - 1. The Quite Revolution, 1960s - A change in political culture and the relationship between society and Provincial government - From religious, inward oriented, conservative society - To secularism, “modernization,” and expansion of the bureaucratic structure of the province 1 - 2. The Separatist Option: - Amongst some groups there was a belief that the Quite Revolution was moving too slowly - This was seen in the economy where Anglophone capital still dominated - It was seen in politics where the accession to power of Trudeau in 1968 saw the federal government adopt a less open attitude toward the further devolution of power toward Quebec - The Parti Quebecois was established in 1968 “as the primary vehicle of the independence cause” - Using normal political channels to advance Quebec’s interests - But the Front de Liberation du Quebec both promoted and carried out violent acts designed to move the political process quickly towards separation - The extra-legal route to Quebec autonomy was quelled by Prime Minister Trudeau when he enacted the War Measures Act in 1970 - 3. Increased unilingual policy 1970s: - Bill 22 The Official Language Act (1974) - Bill 101 (1977) – Charter of the French Language - 1. “It made French the only language of the legislature” - 2. “Only individuals (not corporations) could use English in Quebec courts” - 3. “Children could not go to English schools unless one of their parents had done so”
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