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POLSCI 2I03 (101)
Andrew Lui (26)
Lecture

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Department
Political Science
Course
POLSCI 2I03
Professor
Andrew Lui
Semester
Fall

Description
Lecture 1 Office hours: Monday: 3:30-4:20. Wednesday: 9:30-10:20 . KTH 531 History of International Relations: 1648- Treaty of Westphalia – important then and today. Religious basis between protestants and catholics. Around that time in Europe, the continent was dividing in terms of overlapping sovereign rule: communities, princes, kings etc and on top of all that there was the church and the Vatican. Even if you were the king of England Henry you could not divorce your wife according to the church, thus the king separated from the church. Cuis Regio eius religio: notion of sovereignty was born. Before kings did not have the supreme authority within a territorial boundary, after the treaty there was one within a particular state, which became a nation-state. This is where the birth of modern nation started. Changes: if you no longer have the Vatican having the supreme authority, their power starts to decrease, slowly but surely. What happens when you have territorial boundaries, it means there is increase in competition between the states, scientific renovation than before, and the age of enlightenment- the age of reason (the belief that with scientific progress there may not be a limit to human potential and other things – material and empire). All these things are happening slowly and concurrently. People also began to theorize about the state and governance. This is because before it was the god’s representative on earth (king) and everything they spoke was the natural law. Within the age of enlightenment that kind of logic no longer holds. Thus revolutions happened in United States and France. You see the beheading of the elites (people who represented god’s words) in France. After the revolution, Paris still remains the center of the universe. It was where much of the philosophy of science occurred; it was the common language of diplomacy. Even while countries, elites from other places in Europe, envy much of French culture and language they soon began to go on war with the French leader Napoleon. Napoleon adds another layer to the birth of modern nation. War of 1812- attempts to invade Russia. The Russians raised armies: the Czar appoints his cousin as chief of army, who has other cousins (they were elites). If you were the gentry it meant you have land and make the peasants work for you. The peasants worked on the land, pay back a certain percentage of the crop, and whatever was left was for them . If one year the crop fails, its okay you can pay later with interest. Once the gentries come and say they don’t want the money for the land but their sons and men to make up an army. Thus, they had not much of an army – teenagers. Napoleon raised army: appointed a person whose sole purpose was to study war and army. They put on French uniform because they were French and did it for their country, French catholic men (other religions not permitted to serve). The men got honour for sacrificing their lives but they also got rights and services. If you fought and are injured, the state would take care of you unlike the other states and before. They would get pensions and medical care. This was another stage of the birth of the modern state we live in. before wars was what the kings did for sport, but now it was for you, your state, your family, etc. this is evident in today’s time too when politicians speak about it on television i.e. Nationalism. Nationalism led to empirilism and empire. They start to fight each other abroad, for the world’s territory and world’s wealth. Nationalism makes it very much possible. In many ways it legitimize a form racism
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