Office hours: Monday: 3:30-4:20. Wednesday: 9:30-10:20 . KTH 531
History of International Relations:
1648- Treaty of Westphalia – important then and today. Religious basis between protestants and
catholics. Around that time in Europe, the continent was dividing in terms of overlapping
sovereign rule: communities, princes, kings etc and on top of all that there was the church and
the Vatican. Even if you were the king of England Henry you could not divorce your wife
according to the church, thus the king separated from the church.
Cuis Regio eius religio: notion of sovereignty was born. Before kings did not have the supreme
authority within a territorial boundary, after the treaty there was one within a particular state,
which became a nation-state. This is where the birth of modern nation started.
Changes: if you no longer have the Vatican having the supreme authority, their power starts to
decrease, slowly but surely. What happens when you have territorial boundaries, it means there
is increase in competition between the states, scientific renovation than before, and the age of
enlightenment- the age of reason (the belief that with scientific progress there may not be a limit
to human potential and other things – material and empire). All these things are happening
slowly and concurrently. People also began to theorize about the state and governance. This is
because before it was the god’s representative on earth (king) and everything they spoke was the
natural law. Within the age of enlightenment that kind of logic no longer holds. Thus revolutions
happened in United States and France. You see the beheading of the elites (people who
represented god’s words) in France.
After the revolution, Paris still remains the center of the universe. It was where much of the
philosophy of science occurred; it was the common language of diplomacy. Even while
countries, elites from other places in Europe, envy much of French culture and language they
soon began to go on war with the French leader Napoleon. Napoleon adds another layer to the
birth of modern nation. War of 1812- attempts to invade Russia. The Russians raised armies: the
Czar appoints his cousin as chief of army, who has other cousins (they were elites). If you were
the gentry it meant you have land and make the peasants work for you. The peasants worked on
the land, pay back a certain percentage of the crop, and whatever was left was for them . If one
year the crop fails, its okay you can pay later with interest. Once the gentries come and say they
don’t want the money for the land but their sons and men to make up an army. Thus, they had
not much of an army – teenagers.
Napoleon raised army: appointed a person whose sole purpose was to study war and army. They
put on French uniform because they were French and did it for their country, French catholic
men (other religions not permitted to serve). The men got honour for sacrificing their lives but
they also got rights and services. If you fought and are injured, the state would take care of you unlike the other states and before. They would get pensions and medical care. This was another
stage of the birth of the modern state we live in. before wars was what the kings did for sport, but
now it was for you, your state, your family, etc. this is evident in today’s time too when
politicians speak about it on television i.e. Nationalism.
Nationalism led to empirilism and empire. They start to fight each other abroad, for the world’s
territory and world’s wealth. Nationalism makes it very much possible. In many ways it
legitimize a form racism