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PSYCH 1X03 (1,055)
Joe Kim (989)


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McMaster University
Joe Kim

PSYCH 1X03 WEB MODULE 2: RESEARCH METHODS SCIENTIFIC METHOD  Provides a seven step "recipe for how to collect and analyze info while trying to minimize biases, conflicts or oversights 1. Theory: study existing info about the world which helps them develop theory ( general set of ideas about the way the world works) 2. Hypothesis: set of testable statements; makes specific predictions about the relationship between variables 3. Research Method: the way in which a hypothesis will be tested (experiment) 4. Collect Data: take measurement s of the outcome of the tests 5. Analyze Data: note any trends or relationships in the research ; leads them to accept or reject hypothesis 6. Report the Findings: publishing articles in journals 7. Revise Theories: include new info into our understanding of the world  Paradigm shift: particularly dramatic change in our way of thinking TESTING A HYPOTHESIS  Anecdotal evidence: evidence gathered from others or self experience CONTROL GROUPS  Simplest experiments contain experimental and control groups  Experimental group: receive manipulation of the independent variable during experiment  Control group: will not receive manipulation of the independent variable  Participants in both groups should be as similar as possible WITHIN-SUBJEC DESIGN  manipulating the independent variable within each participant to minimize the effect of external variables on the dependant measure  tests the same subject repeatedly while manipulating the independent variable differently  Time consuming and costly  The measure we are using or subject could change over the course of experiment  Practice effect: subject's performance improves because they have become more experienced BETWEEN SUBJECTS DESIGN  One group of subjects receives manipulation and one is a control group  Subjects should be similar in every way except the manipulation  Confounding variable: variable other than independent that has an effect on the results SELECTING SUBJECTS  Results from very specific groups of participants cannot be generalized to other groups  Population: the general group of people we are trying to learn about  Sample: the selected members of the population that we collect data from  Random sample: reduce bias towards a specific group  Random assortment: assign subjects to experimental or control group randomly BIASES  Placebo effect: occurs when a subject exhibits a response to a treatment that, in reality, has no effect  Participant bias: when a participant's actions in an experiment influence the results outside the manipulations of the experimenter (placebo)  Blinding: when participants don’t know whether they belong to the exp
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