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PSYCH 2AA3 (402)


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Jennifer Ostovich

Research Methods in Developmental Psychology thMonday September 12 Data CollectionCase StudiesObservational ResearchCorrelational Research o Survey studiesReading abilityStructured interviewsParent teacher and peer reports o The problem of retrospective reports the point when it actually happensSometimes one can misremember certain points of their lives because of various stereotypes or social norms When did you hit pubertyIf you follow someones life then one can make a sound judgement because you have a lifeline of events to collect data from o Caveat Corelational does not equal causation Experimentso Good because you can assign random assignments to your subjects o Random assignment gives us a normal distribution of outcomes o Random assignment gives you causationOne cant randomly assign because of certain things that you cant control o For example culture parental influence gender wealth IQTypes of Experiments o Labsrandom assignmento Fieldrandom assignment school yard at home friends house o Quasi can be in Lab or Fieldrandom assignment not possible on at least one variableMust be careful with interpretation Research DesignThree main designs for studying age effects o Cross sectionalTake male and female children of different ages in the same calendar year and take the measurement of them and report back o LongitudinalFollow male and female subjects for a long period of time for example 6 years o SequentialCombining both crosssectional and longitudinalfollowing male and female subjects overEach design can use any data collection method o Usually correlational Cross Sectional DesignPROS o Quick and cheap o Demonstrate age differencesCONS o Cohort effect groups of people who have the same historical experiences at the same time of their lives for example The Great Depression o Can say nothing about how development occurs for example continuous and discontinuous thSeptember 14 Longitudinal Designs PROSEliminates some aspects of the cohort effect o Changesdevelopment not cohortTells us about development course o Continuity and discontinuityCan reveal links between early experiences and later outcomes CONSCohort effect still a problem o The crossgeneration problemstudies that have taken years to compile ten years lets say the results that are found wont relate to the current generation different cohorts have various social aspects o Historical data that the subjects were experiencing will probably wont be applicable to the subjects being studied todayCost and timePractise effects o Since we are observing children over time every time they come into your lab their behaviours start to change because they know of certain positivenegative experiences o Making tests a little bit different every time the child comes in reduces the practise effect but does not eliminate it entirelySelective attrition o Example Galambos et al 2006 SE study The Attrition ProblemGalambos et al 2006Conducted a study of how self esteem drops after the years of finishing high schoolAge group was 1825 dropout rate was over fifty percentOne can assume that the people who have dropped out probably have low self esteem whereas the ones who continued the survey have higher self esteemOne can use that assumption to come to a conclusion called selective attritionShe studied those who stayed and those who dropped out but they both pretty much had the same selfesteem rateAlso stated that selfesteem increases when one is above twentyfive Sequential Designs Longitudinalsequential or crosssequentialStart experiment in one year with two different aged three years apart subjects male and female and compare the results over the next three yearsChooses two ages groups but born in the same two years and compares the dataWith that you can compare different cohorts more often and get better resultsOne can state that they dont have a cohort effect if when they compare the data and there is not too much different from the years if not then they do have the cohort effect PROsBenefits of longitudinal design but less cost and timeCan compare different cohorts at same ages o If different at same age then there is a cohort effect o If similar at same age then there is an age effect developmentCan compare different cohorts patterns of development across time o Are agerelated patterns specific to a specific condition CONSComplicated o There is a lot more to do but the more you do the more experiences and benefits you can attain from itDoesnt completely solve the cohort problem o Crossgenerational problem remains in play Microgenetic DesignBasically watching every moment of a childs growth and maturityWhat processes promote developmental changesIntense observations when developmental change is expected to occur PROSCan watch development as it occurs CONS
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