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2B03 Lecture 5

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McMaster University
Richard B Day

1 Jan 15/14 Psych 2B03, Personality, Dr. Day, C02 Lecture 5 Freud and Psychoanalysis Review of Last Lecture • The Id present at birth repository of all libido or psychic energy of the mind and desperately working to gain gratification through the primary process – which involves investing, attaching libido to images in memory which are associated with pleasure and the satisfaction of these drives • Apart from the Primary Process, the only behaviours that the Id can control are reflexes. It doesn’t have a direct contact with the world. It only sees the world through these memory images • It has no understanding of causer and affect and how the world works or how the behaviours of the individual will affect that individual in terms of the consequences • It also has no sense of time, there is only one moment in which gratification can be achieved it’s at this moment NOW • The Id never changes, except for the images it has access to, it just thinks NOW • There is no consciousness of the Id activity, except indirectly • As soon as the infant is born, a part of the Id differentiates and develops new capabilities and characteristics called the Ego • The Ego’s purpose is to help the Id to gain gratification consistent with the Ego’s understanding of how the world works • The Ego has direct access to the senses, it hears, feels etc. • The Ego works by the Reality Principle – if it feels good do it, but only if it’s safe, if it won’t cause negative consequences such as pain. • It works by the Secondary Process –Attempts to gain gratification by noting what images the ID is looking at/investing libido in and then taking that same libido and investing it in the actual interaction with that object • So the Id gets gratification by contemplating/investing libido in images; the Ego gains much greater gratification by investing that libido in the interaction with the object • The objects in Freud’s terminology refers to a human • All the energy of the Ego is taken from the Id’s store of libido 2 Jan 15/14 Psych 2B03, Personality, Dr. Day, C02 • The ego in addition to understanding cause and effect, having contact with the outside world, it also understands time, the significance of that is that the Ego can think of gaining gratification not Now, which is what the Id wants, but later, it can think of developing plans based on its understanding of how the world works to get even more gratification than the Id • Most of the gratification like the Id it’s unconscious • 90% of the Ego is unconscious but about 10% is conscious, which compromises our consciousness • These two structures conceptualize the two biggest influences on our behaviour and thinking • The Id mostly represents human nature • Culture, society and morality is not part of the Id and Ego Superego • There are two parts to it 1) Ego Ideal – it contains all of the things for which we were praised and rewarded as children, it’s the good things, the things we should do, we take these to be morally accepted and proper 2) Conscience- the no-no list, set of behaviours that we were punished and that we take as morally unacceptable and wrong • Most of the Superego is unconscious • Small fraction of it is conscious, we can think consciously about ethical and moral issues • Most of what is important in human personality is unconscious to us • The superego also takes libido from Id, everything that happens in our mind requires energy and that energy ultimately comes from the store of the Id • Before Freud everyone believed children were innocent angels, and that it was only when they reached puberty that suddenly sexuality erupts. • Freud said no, he said yes there is period of sexuality that begins in puberty and lasts until death, but he also said that there is another, even more important period of sexual arousal and activity that begins at birth and lasts around the ages of 6 and then goes underground only to emerge, reenergized at puberty – this was very controversial at the time 3 Jan 15/14 Psych 2B03, Personality, Dr. Day, C02 • One of the big influences of Freud was on developmental psychology • Before Freud they viewed children to be equal to adults • Freud said adult behaviour was shaped by childhood experiences • He said when the children are born the only sources of sexual and aggressive gratification that its aware of comes from the stimulation of its own parts of body • They get their sexual gratification from their own body parts called erogenous zones and there are number of them that if you stimulate in anyway the pleasure you receive is a sexual pleasure • He said the journey is a discovery of new erogenous zones in a particular order and each discovery defines a new psychosexual stage of development and brings about a new learning opportunity for the child Stages of Sexual Development The Oral Stage: Birth to One Year • The first forms of pleasure come from the mouth • Stimulation of the oral area • Two sub-stages- • 1) Early Oral Stage: Sucking and Swallowing – stimulation of the tongue and the lips, when the baby has no teeth. This is called the oral incorporative sub-stage, because the pleasures involve taking in and incorporating things into the mouth 2 Later Oral Stage: OralAggressive sub-stage, when the teeth emerge. Biting and Chewing • Freud believed there was a lesson to be learned in each stage, a lesson about desire, the lesson about the management of desire and impulses and needs • The Lesson in the Oral Stage comes in the end, during most of t
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