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Lecture

PSYCH 1X03 Lecture Notes - Statistical Hypothesis Testing, Histogram, Confounding


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 1X03
Professor
Joe Kim

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Psych 1X03 Week Two Notes 12/6/2011 12:18:00 PM
The Scientific Method
- Has a seven step method that tries to eliminate biased opinions and
conflicts.
- The formal way of asking and answering questions about human behaviour
to get the most accurate information possible and sidestep the inaccuracy of
our common sense beliefs and assumptions.
The Seven Steps
1) Construct a theory
A general set of ideas about the way the world works.
2) Generate hypothesis
Testable statement guided by theories that make a prediction about
the relationship between variables.
3) Choose research method
The way in which the hypothesis will be tested.
4) Collect data
Taking measurements of the outcomes of the test.
5) Analyze data
Understand the data and discover trends or relationships between
variables.
6) Report the findings
Publish articles in scholarly journals.
7) Revise existing theories
To include new information into our understanding of the world.
Paradigm Shift
A dramatic change in our way of thinking.
Different way of looking at things. A set of assumptions and ideas
about what kind of research questions can be asked and how they
can be answered.
Example: in 1543 thinking the world was not the center of the
world.
Anecdotal Evidence
Evidence gathered from others or self experience.
Experiment
Scientific tool used to measure the effect of one variable on
another.
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Experimental Group
Will receive the manipulation of the independent variable during the
experiment.
Control Group
Will not receive any manipulation of the independent variable.
Independent Variable
Variable manipulated by the scientist.
Dependent Variable
Variable being observed by the scientist.
Within-Subjects Design
Manipulating the independent variable within each participant to
minimize the effect of external variables on the dependent
measure.
Problems include: may be costly and time consuming, the subject
may also change in important ways.
Practice Effect
Improved performance over the course of an experiment due to
becoming more experienced.
Between Subjects Experiment
One group of subjects receive experimental manipulation, one
group acts as the control group.
Random Sampling
Choosing subjects from a population at random.
This reduces the chance of bias’ towards a specific group.
Random Assortment
Assigning subjects to either the experimental or control group at
random to avoid any biases that may cause differences between the
groups of subjects.
Confounding Variable
A variable other than the independent variable that has an effect on
the results.
Placebo Effect
Effect that occurs when an individual exhibits a response to a
treatment that has no related therapeutic effect.
Participant Bias
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