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Lecture 2

PSYCH 2B03 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Nomothetic, Information Processing

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Richard B Day

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Lecture 2: Perspectives of Personality
Type Approach: There are dierent types (limited number) and we all have
one type
Emphasis on biological bases they are built in and there is little we
can do to change it therefore it says nothing about personality
development (we have the same personality type from baby – 40)
Little application in clinical practice because there is no change so it is
not useful in therapy
Oldest approach
Hippocrates (Galen Roman Empire) – founder of Humoural Theory, he
tried to use it to understand disease, the human body is made up of
four substances which should balance:
oBlood (Sanguine): compassionate, optimistic, good humour
oYellow Bile (Choleric): aggressive, impulsive, energetic
oBlack Bile (Melancholic): depressed
oPhlegm (Phlegmatic): laid-back, easy going
Trait Approach
Personality = internal characteristics and tendencies
Emphasis on biological factors, we can’t really change our traits
(extrovert vs. introvert) therefore very little in2uence on psychiatry
no development
Psychodynamic Approach: Based on the work of Freud
Personality  interaction of internal psychic structures
Recognizes the important of biology and experience some parts are
built in, but our personality is shaped by interactions we have in the
Says much about development  counseling
Behaviourists (Learning) Approach
Personality is consistent patterns of behaviour
Learning, experience and environment = who we are
You can change almost anything DEVELOPMENT! Changing behaviour
= changing personality
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