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Lecture 3

PSYCH 3B03 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Synaptic Pruning, Adverse Drug Reaction, MalnutritionPremium

4 pages101 viewsFall 2018

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Vivian Lee

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September 20/2018
Lecture 3 Biological and Environmental Context
What is the Biological Basis of Psychopathology?
- Brain Development
o The embryological development generates an overabundance of nerve cells
o Axons migrate
o Genes determine axons trajectory and connections to target cells
o More axons than target cells can accommodate
o Activation of Selective Pruning
o Synaptic density increases up to the age of 2 years at which time there are
about 50% more synapses than adult levels
o After 2 years levels decrease as a result of synaptic pruning until the age of
16 years when adult levels are reached
o Changes in synaptic density occur at different rates in different areas of the brain
Ex. visual cortices peak early; frontal cortices peak late
- It is the interaction with experience that results in the consolidation of circuits and the
pruning of unnecessary synapses
Prenatal Influences on the Developing CNS
- Poor material diet and stress
- Teratogens
o Ex. exposure to lead
- Drugs and alcohol
- Medications
- Radiation and environmental contaminants
- Disease
Perinatal Influences on the Developing CNS
- Medications during childbirth
- Complications during labour
o Ex. anoxia
Postnatal Influences on the Developing CNS
- Accidents
- Illness
- Malnutrition
- Accidental poisoning
- Genetic material is contained in all cells
- Chromosomes contain DNA
- Segments called genes
- Genotype actual gene makeup
- Phenotype expression of genetic makeup
- Single Gene Inheritance
o Dominant Gene always gonna be presented in your phenotype
o Recessive Gene
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