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Lecture 7

Lecture 7 2Q06 Oct 31.docx

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Work: Women and Men Part 1 Lecture 7, Soc 2Q06E October 31, 2012 • “Men are neither supposed nor allowed to be dependent. They are expected to take care of both others and themselves. And when they cannot do it, or “will not” do it, the built-in assumption at the heart of the culture is that they are less than men and therefore unworthy of help” (Marlin, 1991/1995: 490 cited in Nelson, 2010: 218) • that role should be our primary role, and all other roles should go below the work role • Three principles from the Work-Role Model for men: • 1. Need to work from graduation till death- death is only then when you are permitted to stop working for pay. General consensus that this is acceptable for men in society, and we look down on men who cannot find jobs and support for his family. We look down on men who are on financial dependency from either their parents or their partner. • 2. Jobs should be their central focus-it has to be subordinating all other roles (i.e. father, brother, husband), we reduce men to a money making machine. Men need to be pushed and focus on paid labour • 3. Fulfillment comes through work roles – men should get a self- actualization through their paid work- your job defines who you are. “Breadwinners” is what men are supposed to be. • Taxonomy developed by Potucheck (1992, 1997) cited in Nelson, 2010: 220. • Categories in which women place their earning in relationship to their husbands earnings • -Employed homemaker- view husbands jobs as more important • -Helpers- idea that women are just working to assist the family in their finances • -Co-bread winners- recognizes that the money she brings in at the end of the month contributes to the household finances equally • -Reluctant providers- women who have no choice because they need to bring in some money • -Supplementary providers- provide necessary income, but see husbands work as the same one • -Reluctant traditional- rarely work full time • -Family-centered workers- believe that their husbands should be doing everything to financially support the family • -Committed workers- gain a lot out of their paid labour, gain fulfillment • Shift to factory based textile production and industrial capitalism: • 1. Productive activity linked to production of exchange (associated with the market place) • 2. Economic dependence on males- because they became distant on where they were working they became dependent on that income • 3. Demise of handicraft system- women were actively engaged in artisanal work • (Alexander, 1989:40) • all industrial nations have seen revised female labour • moving productions from home to factory created a labour force • Ideology of the family wage: • Demand that wages should be set high enough so as to allow a male wage earner to support his wife and children • Really emerged from the labour movements of working class men • Condition was the idea that wages should be set high enough so that a male breadwinner should be able to support himself, his wife and children • The femal worker was seen as someone who didn’t need as high of a wage as men because they had husbands who had higher wages • Assumption of dominant male breadwinner • Potential Labour Force: all individuals between the ages of 15-67 • Employed: has a job (paid employment) • Unemployed: no current job, but actively looking for one • Inactive: no job, and not looking • Labour force= employed + unemployed • Three common measure: • 1. Participation Rates = Labour force/potential labour force – a measure of how many individuals are active in a countries economy • 2. Unemployment rate= Unemployed/labour force • 3. Employment rate= Employed/Potential Labour Force • GRAPHS ON SLIDESHOW Immediate Causes of female participation rate in labour force • Expanding job market – increase in jobs available for women to work in (service sector) • Opportunities to socialize- allowed women to meet other women • Policy changes- enable women to get skills training and go to college • More married women entering labour force- • Increasing education • Smaller family size • Need for second income- household are becoming all consumption therefore there is a greater dependency on the income women are bringing in • More separation and divorce • Rise in secondary labour sector Causes of Gender Differences in Participation Rates • Culture • “Totality of learned, socially transmitted customs, knowledge, material objects, and behaviour” (Scheafer and Smith, 2004). • The central tenant is coming from a functionalist examination • Contemporary studies of culture is what does it do for people, ideology, the impact for people, dominance • Contested term • An individuals cultural background affects the decision we make • Female participation rates in the paid labour force is effected by culture • More contemporary discussion focus on what culture does, the impact of culture. • Education • If education is strongly valued they will continue in school • Women’ s continuation in education allows them to get better jobs in the end • Economy • If jobs are seen as scarce during the recession, then some of those in the potential labour force will give up looking for work. • Biology • How does women’s responsibility toward childbearing and childrearing impact labour force participation? • Childrearing falls mostly to women • Removes them from the labour force for a period of time • Note that women are having fewer children International Comparisons • Refer to OECD chart (2003) (having trouble pasting this chart but that is okay will cover in class) • Rates of participation highest in Sweden, Canada, the USA, the UK and New Zealand. • Lowest in Mexico and Spain • The greater the female rate the more opportunities for women • Remember this does not necessarily challenges the position of women in society. • Occupational Gender Segregation
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