Sociology 1A06 Jan 11/10
How easy or hard it is to climb the social ladder?
o Measured generationally
This is a measure of social structure, not of individuals
What Causes Inequality?
Income and wealth inequality primarily caused by:
o Labour market
Sorts people into different jobs
o Social Policy
Race, ethnic and gender inequalities
o Economy/labour market/policy
o Social structure
o Immigration policy & opportunity
Is there work available?
Does the work pay a living wage?
Are there shortages of goods?
o If a shortage of goods, price of those goods increase
o Fewer people can afford whatever they need
o Value of their salaries decrease
Are there benefits for healthcare, childcare, etc?
How are jobs distributed?
What is the range of wages?
What groups have access to each type of jobs?
What causes Inequality?
We (citizens, voters) decide how much inequality we prefer
Policies determine level
How easy or hard it is to climb the social ladder: measured generationally. This is a measure of social structure, not of individuals. Income and wealth inequality primarily caused by: economy, labour market. Sorts people into different jobs: social policy. Race, ethnic and gender inequalities: economy/labour market/policy, segregation, social structure, discrimination, family. If a shortage of goods, price of those goods increase: fewer people can afford whatever they need, value of their salaries decrease. We (citizens, voters) decide how much inequality we prefer. Jan 11/10: social benefits, poverty relief, progressive taxation shrinks inequality, regressive taxation policies expands inequality. Bridge tolls and other flat taxes are progressive taxes. Reducing inequality: welfare & social services, childcare benefit, universal benefits are progressive and therefore decreases inequality (e. g. , childcare benefit, universal healthcare, minimum wage, public education, old age security(oas)/canada pension plan (cpp) Increasing inequality: corporate tax breaks, tax shelters, loopholes, low capital gains tax.