What is "tourism"?
- social practice and leisure activity
- temporary escape from work/home, travelling to "elsewhere" and seeing
things/people outside the "ordinary"
- marker of status
- mass culture industry
"Tourism is about difference"
- ideology, power
History of Tourism
- distinctly "modern" activity
- mass tourism begins in the late 19th century; transition from elite to mass
tourism accelerated post-WW2, especially to third world countries
- travel has traditional been a male activity = a departure from the domestic
(feminine) space of home
Gender and Tourism
- femininity and domesticity - historical barriers to women's mobility
- "Victoria lady travellers"
- Mary Kingsley
- Mary Seacole
- Thomas Cook: taking English middle-class respectability on the road
- "safe" travel for women (and families)
- similar discourses inform tourism/development relationship
- early women travellers and their "difference"
- from white male adventurers
- from "uncivilized" racial "others"
- reproducing colonial and imperial discourses
- travel destination as "contract zone"
- unequal conversations
- ethnic, racial and class hierarchies
Global Economics and Tourism
- travel and global capitalism
- growth industry, tourism as "development"
- ambivalent and unequal effects
- foreign capital/new economic dependancies
- unequal accommodations
- cultural commodifications
- environmental impact
- women's labour and agency in tourism
Tourism, Gender and the Global Economy
- "It is not simply that ideas about pleasure, travel, escape, bed-making, and
sexuality have affected women in rich and poor countries. The very structure of
international tourism needs patriarchy to survive. Men's capacity to control
women's sense of their security and self-worth has been central to the evolution
of tourism politics"
- therefore, women's and feminist interventions in tourism are international political interventions
What can we do about this?
- anticorporate activism - on campus, in social and environmental campaigns
- information, protest and planning across generations and national border
- culture jamming
- worker's unions in export processing zones
- unions and labour ri