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Lecture 10

BIOL103 Lecture 10: Week 4, Lectures 10-12

Course Code
BIOL 103
Virginia K Walker

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Week 4
Blood Components
Blood is composed of 50-60% of plasma and 40-50% of cell components
Plasma has a pH of ~7.4
Plasma is 90% water and 10% salts, dissolved gases, hormones, glucose, wastes,
nutrients and proteins
Platelets are cell fragments that come from megakaryocytes
Blood Clotting
See loose leaf
Note: A platelet factor converts prothrombin to thrombin and thrombin converts
fibrinogen to fibrin
There are many clotting factors that are involved in blood clotting
• Ca++ and Vitamin K are also very important (activate clotting factors and other
things in order to produce a clot)
Practical/Medical Applications
1. Genetics of clotting diseases
Factor IX located on the X chromosome
Known as hemophilia B
Impairs bodys ability to clot blood
2. Killing rats
Blood thinner
Prevents clotting anf decreases vitamin K

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Lack of vitamin K prevents clotting factors from being activated so
blood cannot clot
Rats will bleed to death
Gas Transport and Respiratory Systems
Red Blood Cells
Contain hemoglobin
Plasma membrane has glycoproteins, including ABO and Rh glycoproteins
Each subunit of hemoglobin contains an iron core which an O2 molecule
binds to
Be able to recognize a protein and a carbohydrate
2 beta globins
2 alpha globins
4 heme groups
300 000 000 molecules found in each RBC, each molecule contains 4 O2
molecules so great for carrying oxygen
Most common and important pulmonary function test
Used to help diagnosis and monitor chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD),
asthma, cystic fibrosis, etc.
Measures the flow (forced expiratory volume in 1 second) and volume (forced vital
capacity) of inhaled and exhaled air

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In mammals the circulatory system separates the pulmonary and systemic circuits
The pulmonary circuit is exposed to a high partial pressure of oxygen (Po2) at the lungs
Gases and Gas Pressure
Air is:
21% Oxygen
78% Nitrogen
<1% Carbon Dioxide
Atmospheric pressure=pressure on the body surfaces of animals measured in mmHg
or kPa (1kPa=7.5mmHg)
Atmospheric pressure is the sum of the partial pressure (pressures exerted by each
gas in air) in proportion to their amounts
Recall Daltons law: the total pressure is the sum of the partial pressures
• P02=0.21x760mmHg (sea level) = 160mmHg
• Diusion across cell membranes is driven by partial pressure gradients
In the capillary beds of erythrocytes the partial pressure of oxygen is low and oxygen
is released by the erythrocytes
In the lungs, oxygen diuses across the membranes of the alveoli and is picked up
by hemoglobin
In the lungs any carbon dioxide on the hemoglobin is released because the partial
pressure of carbon dioxide is lower
In the capillary beds of erythrocytes the partial pressure of CO2 is high so it remains
in the blood (mostly in RBCs where it binds to hemoglobin, some in plasma, most
combines with water)
• Co2 + H20 H2CO3 H+ + HCO3-
Carbonic Anhydrase catalyzes this reaction
Carbonic Acid dissociates (H2CO3) and produces H+ and HCO3-
Produces heat which allows O2 to be released easier
Helps regulates pH of blood (buer - bicarbonate HCO3-)
Products can also go into RBCs and alter hemoglobin, which makes it
easier for O2 to be released
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