44 – Antony was consul, in charge of affairs in Rome. Lepidus, Pontifex Maximus had left to
govern his province of Nearer Spain. Octavian had returned to Italy to claim his inheritance.
44 – P. Cornelius Dolabella – consul tor eplace the murdered Caesar, became ally to Octavian.
Brutus – Crete
Cassius – Cyrene
Decimus Brutus – Cisalpine Gaul
Trebonius – Asia
Sextus Pompey – not a governor, just chilling in Spain, rebelling and shit.
May 44 – Octavian emerged as a rival to Antony; Antony reassigned his province from
Macedonia; Antony got Cisalpine and Transalpine Gaul for 5 years, +4 legions from Macedonia
to be transferred to the Gaullic provinces. By virtue of their proximity to Italy, the governor of
these alpines could be super iinfluential in Italy (ie, Caesar).
But Decimus Brutus was supposed to have Cisalpine Gaul? He gets Macedonia..But Decimus
Brutus was living as governor in Cisalpine Gaul, refused to leave. Antony called 4 legions from
Macedonia. While en route, two of those legions defected to Octavian. This kind of made
Antony’s problems worse.
The Caesarian faction was now divided into two parties: Antony vs Octavian
Octavian began to cooperate with the Republic senators – senior statesmen bolstered Octavians
power, and made Antony an enemy. Cicero embraced Octavian as the lesser of two evils; Cicero
had not participated in the conspiracy against Caesar, but approved of it.
Sept 44: Antony criticizes CICERO for frequently being absent from Senate meetings.
Cicero replies with 14 ndeeches, THE PHILIPPICS (44-43)
The most famous, the 2 Philippic, was never delivered orally, but published. It decried Antony
as a sucky person. He delivered the other 13 in the senate when Antony was absent; Antony
totally hated him.
Cicero persuades many senators to ally themselves with Octavian, against Antony. Antony departs for Cisalpine Gaul in December; Decimus Brutus is still there, refuses to move.
Antony besieged him in the town of MUTINA (DEC 44 – APRIL 43).
Decimus called for support from the senate; they ordered Antony to leave, and sent troops under
the two consuls of 43 (Aulus HIRTIUS and C. Vibius PANSA). Both consuls killed at Mutina.
Pansa died in first, Hirtius in the second.
Octavian also sent out with pro-praetorian power (he’s only super young, but whatever). Totally
helps Decimus Brutus, even though DB had helped kill Caesar.
Antony defeated, fled across the alps into Transalpine Gaul. Decimus Brutus sent to chase
Antony, kick his ass.
Now it looks like Senate is in control again ~~
Of the Caesarians, Dollabella had died (? Not mentioned when?) and Antony is on the run.
In East: Brutus and Cassius given IMPERIUM MAIUS in the east (supreme military authority).
Sextus Pompey even got an extraordinary naval command.
Cicero persuades the others to declare Antony a public enemy.
Looked like Republicans were back in power, Cicero no longer needed Octavian. In a letter re
Octavian: “laudandum adulescentem, ornandum, tollendum.” The young man is to be praised,
honoured, and set aside (?)
Octavian refused a triumph or honours. Pissed off, Octavian marched on the city. (Still only 19
Octavian and Q. Pedius – Suffect Consuls for the remainder of 43 to replace the consuls who had
died at Mutina, Hirtius and Pansa). Suffect Consul is like a substitute consult for dead consuls.
Caesar’s murderers to be condemned and banished. Same with Sextus Pompey. Republican
power quickly declines.
Senate’s decree against Antony was revoked; created possibility of reconciliation between
Antony and Octavian.
Antony, fleeing to Transalpine Gaul, met Lepidus who was heading back from Nearer Spain.
Lepidus was a Caesarean, he let his troops fraternize and go over to Antony. The governor of
Narbonese (aka Tranalpine Gaul), L. Munatius Plancus, also defected to Antony. They turned the
tables on Decimus Brutus, killed him.
Antony became governor of Cisalpine Gaul; Antony and Lepidus had 22 legions. They marched
to Italy. Octavian marches to meet them with 11 legions.
Conference at Benonia: organized by Lepidus. 2 Triumvirate formed for 5 years between
Octavian, Antony, and Lepidus, for purpose of restoration of the Roman State (“triumviri rei
This second triumvirate was enacted into law in Nov 27, 43 – LEX TITA. All three given
imperium, ability to pass laws without senate’s approval.
Antony: Cisalpine Gaul and Gallia Comata
Lepidus: 2 Spains and Transalpine Gaul
Octavian: Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, and N. Africa
Cemented this triumvirate with marriage alliances. Octavian married Claudia, Antony’s
stepdaughter (the daughter of his wife Fulvia and her previous husband, the infamous P.
Octavian and Lepidus relinquished consulship; wasn’t quite so key. Lepidus protected Rome,
Octavian would go marching to the east against Brutus and Cassius.
43: Proscriptions: officially, confiscated properties of conspirators against Caesar. In reality, for
funding the war against the tyranocides, Brutus and Cassius in the east.
Dec 7, 43: Cicero murdered, tongue and right hand displayed on rostra (speaker’s platform in
forum). (Cicero proscribed, Antony calls for his death because he’s still pissed about Cicero’s
When they still didn’t have enough money, added some taxes.
Temple dedicated to Julius Caesar in Forum, deified as Divus Iulius.
SO, Octavian was DIVI FILIUS (son of a god).
After cleaning out Italy of the tyranocides, Octavian goes to fight Cassius and Brutus. Antony
and Octavian evade large fleet, transport their greater number of troops across to Macedonia.
42: The Battle of Philippi: Caesarians vs Republicans **(Most important battle since Pharsalus)
1rst battle: Antony defeated Cassius – committed suicide. Brutus defeated Octavian. Overall, the
battle was indecisive.
2 battle: Antony defeated Brutus – committed suicide.
After winning at Philippi, Antony and Octavian divided the empire up between them (Post
Antony: all of the east. Gallic provinces in West (including transalpine Gaul, which Lepidus
lost). He gave up Cisalpine Gaul, which was unofficially annex