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Term two lecture compialtion.docx

Classical Studies
Course Code
CLST 129

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Week 13 Lec 3
9:57 PM
Rome started as a few villages on hills
- Spread out
- Never backed down from a fight
- Italy had been held by other population groups
○ Also Greek colonists down there
- Sicily occupied by Carthage and Rome
- Greece by now is the west coast of Asia Minor, West coast of Black Sea, southern (boot) of Italy, Sicily,
Creet, islands of the Aegean, and others in the Mediterranean
- Alexander the great gets as far as India (through Assyria, Persia, into western India
- Incorporated Greek culture into the cities he took over
- Greek Empire
- Several monarchy's in the Western part of the Empire ruled by other people (not as good)
- Hellenic = Greek; Hellenistic = Greek-like
- Rome takes Everything!
- Come into contact with Hellenistic peoples
- Spread up to Gaul, Farther Spain, Nearer Spain, down to the northern coast of Africa (west of the nile,
east of Mauretania; so basically just a little farther west than Carthage)
- By 44BC they had Gaul, and the East Coastal regions of the Mediterranean
- Julius Caesar = Gaul
- Pompey = Syria, Judaea, Nabataea
- Augustus (early 1st Cent. AD) takes almost all of Mediterranean shores up to Gaul (modern day
France), down to Carthage, to Egypt, up to Greece and over to Asia Minor
- Hadrian(2nd Cent. AD) adds England, further west on africa, east of Egypt, east of Galatia (south
eastern shore of Black sea), etc
- The Nabataean Kingdom: Parts of Syria, Jordan, Egypt; primarily desert (on edge of fertile land)
- Betyls (aniconic--show your gods not in a human form; not anthropomorphic) shrines to Nabataean
- Nabataeans were experts at figuring out where the rain was going to flood in the desert
○ They would bury their cistern in a hol
○ Small hole led to a big chamber
○ Might dig into rock face if available;
○ Or would dig into sand, line with stones and cover with plaster to hold the water
- 2nd Century BC - big change in Nabataean Civ.
○ Architecture
○ They cared about how much they have:
§ Those who diminish their savings are punished
§ Those who increase their savings are commended
○ Carved architecture out of rock faces
○ Oxen- no longer travelling; domesticated animals
○ Growing crops
○ Trade
○ Literacy

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○ Coinage
○ Monarchy depicted through the coins
○ Location Location Location
§ Capital city is Petra
§ North west Arabia
§ North east bay of the red sea
○ Frankincense and myrrh
- Petra
○ Theatre: Greek influence (carved into mountain side
○ Tombs based on Greek architecture
○ (Petra was probably named by the Greeks)
§ "The Rock" so much rock; whole city is basically all carved into rock
○ Start to carve anthropomorphic images of gods
○ Influenced by the Greeks
○ But they are still independent of the Greeks, and then the Romans
○ At some point it was not appropriate to have anthropomorphic images on buildings at Petra so they
were rubbed off
○ Sik - 1km long entrance to Petra
§ Ceremonial entrance
§ Protection
- 27km long aqueduct
- Can't protect that
- Probably a peaceful area/time because they could have an unprotected aqueduct that civilization clung
- Lots of Christian churches in Humayma
- Abbasid family overthrows and takes control of the Muslim world; lived at Humayma
- After that, the site kinda dwindles away
Week 14 Lec 1 Jan 14
1:13 PM
Humayma: Nabatian town
Romans annexed town, built fort big enough for 500 soldiers
After romans 5 byzantine churches
Later a Qaser and Mosque appear, not a big population but lots of visators, route to mecca
Carbonization from fire saved ivory
Abbasid (family) elite, spearhead conspiracy to overthrow the Umayyad Caliphate and the empire
for themselves
King Naboidus of Babylon
o One of the kings of the Mesopotamian cities
o Lived in place where people had lived for hudreads of years before him
o Wanted to know more so dug beneath a temple and found script and objects
o Put them in a private museum
Helena, Mother of Constantine
o Mother is christine

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o Went to jerusulume to seek ought the cross which jesus was crucified on
o Attracted to a barren hill outside city by sweet smelling plant
o Has servant dig and finds a cross
o Puts cross on display for other pilgrims
People interested in things that connect them to their past
Collection 14 C-19C
Classification late 19C- 1940's
Explanation 1950's- today
Collection phase starts in 14th C with the renicasnse, the rebirth of W. Europe
Rebirth due to the rediscovery of greece and Rome
Wealthy individuals buying and kings collecting in their territories
Too get collections looting occurred
Grand tour- elite members of W. Europe and N. America would tour europe but would end in S.
Italy, wanted to experience culture , S. Italy where all the good antiques where being found
Kings and govts. Started establishing museums
Sir William Hamilton British Ambassador to the king of two Sicily's
o Starts as a private collector
o Starts to believe that the artifacts should be shared
o Convinces British Government to buy part of his collection
o Portland vase one of the most famous (cameo Carving) blown glass
o Media campaign about the portland vase
Wedgewood movement occurs but happens in porcelain
Napoleon makes access for W. Europe to E. Europe and Egypt
Begin of W. Europes appreciation of the East
Napoleon takes 175 scholars with him
The rossetta stone one of the most famous finds
Lord Elgin British Ambassador to Ottoman Empire
o Traveled to athens and saw the parthenon and araged to have parts of the site brought back
to england
o Ended up removing pecies from the still standing site
Week 14 Lec 3 Jan 25
12:22 PM
Start with hammer stone and some waste, end up with sharpened stones and more
waste (acquisition and then manufacturing)
Site formation processes
o The processes by which the archaeological material was originally buried; and
o The processes by which buried remains were later transformed by natural and
human factors
Number 1:
o Pompeii --> sudden burial of "living" town -- unusual situation!!
In contrast, archaeological Tell - hill of buried remains; didn't start as a hill;
civilizations build on top of each other
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