Chapter 9 - Brand Strategy and Management (Pg. 329-351)
Brand: A name, term, sign, symbol, or design, (or combination) that identifies the products or
services of one seller, or group of sellers, and differentiates them from those of competitors.
• Words, metaphors, analogies, concepts…
• Brands have personality and involve consumer emotions.
• The brand is more valuable than the totality of all the assets.
• Help consumers identify beneficial products.
• Say something about product quality/consistency.
• Provide legal protection for unique product features that might otherwise be copied by
Trademarks and logos represent brands, customers attach meanings to brands and develop
brand relationships that go beyond a product's physical attributes.
Brands are a key element in the company's relationship with consumers.
Brands represent consumers' perceptions/feelings about a product and its performance.
Brand marketers create and communicate stories about their brands.
Can encourage feedback/storytelling from consumers who love their brand and create brand
Brand Advocates: Customers, employees, and others who willingly and voluntarily promote
their favourite brands (ex. Youtubers, bloggers etc.) How can brand advocacy be created?
1. Trust: Word of mouth (good/bad) influences brand perceptions. Build trust with BAs by
nurturing their recommendations/opinions.
2. Close to Home: Create BAs in the world around you. Gain support from
customers/employees, and their brand enthusiasm will spill over into words/actions.
3. Make Customers/Employees Part of the Brand Story: Put them at the heart of the
brand. Ex. real customer-service calls featured in Zappos commercials, 'I heart Zappos'
4. Deliver an Experience That Gets Them Talking: Persistence + effort + loyalty. Microsoft
advocates vs. Apple advocates.
5. Outperform Where They Care The Most: Understand/solve problems for brand
participants. People as Brands
Marketing can turn a person's name into a powerhouse brand, (ex. Oprah, Martha Stewart,
• Athletes have become their own brand, there's more control over how, when, and
where their image is marketed.