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Queen's University
ECON 590

January 14, 2013 (Week 2, Lecture 1) Beyond a monadic definition - Multidimensional - Heuristic framework What is politics about? - Political ideas - The community and its affairs - Interests and their intersection o Express what we want or don’t want o We don't want to assume people’s interests are going to line up consistently o Need to take into account the inconsistencies o What happens when individuals interests intersect with each other  How do interests interact with one another  The ease with which interests can conflict or complement o Interests can co-exist separately from one another  They are discrete interests  Don't have an impact on one another - Power, influence, and authority o Making sure one and one’s interests prevails over others – power  Frequently constructed as something good, but when it is exercised it is always negative o Influence – conflicts of interest - Rules - Governance: choosing the rules Interconnections - Multidimensional definition encourages analysis of interconnections: o Community shaped by ideas and rules  Ideas and rules change over time  The way in which communities look will change over time o Rules reflect interests o Think about whose interests are served January 17, 2013 (Week 2, Lecture 2) What is Governance? - Authoritative choices for community - Regulating public affairs - Decisions implemented by exercising power, influence, and authority o Process of decision making, regulation, and enforcement - Government, non universal, is the institutions established to undertake the process of governance - Does one need a government to engage in governance? - Characteristics of governance in societies having a state and governmental institutions - Continuous organization of official functions bound by rules o Monopoly on use of force (private individuals can’t use force for own interest legitimately) o Highly institutionalized o Rules are codified - Classes – division of labor o Fundamental separation of government and governed - No state in existence where governors are employed in meaningful activities other than governing - Ruling class sustained by surplus produced by community January 21, 2013 (Week 3, Lecture 1) - Comparing Societies: State vs. Stateless o Recall stateless societies from last week and their characteristics o Now consider governed by states, and the thing that makes them different is the reversal of characteristics of stateless organizations  Continuously organized  Highly institutionalized  Rules codified  Monopoly on use of force o Classes division of labor  Separation of rulers from governed  Ruling class sustained by a surplus produced by the community  Only very recently has a man as a species developed a state, and even the modern state is very recent o We want to look at:  Functions of the state  Importance of supreme political authority  Origins of society  Universal functions of the state • Defines the community o All decide who is part of the community and who is not (American-Mexican border) (citizenship tests, internationally) • Conduct relations with others o Do not think about the political world as Canadian citizens who need to not worry about the threat of attack, enslavement, and degradation by another state (think of Canadian-Australian first nations) • Maintain Internal/Domestic order o The enforcement of rules, the enforcement of pattern maintenance, (to continue the trend that keeps those with power in power) [i.e. Monarch passing on throne to children) • Engage in economic redistribution o Produce labor, capital, goods, income, etc. The emergence of a ruling class demands redistribution • Engage and maintain infrastructure o Public works, in the sense that they are a part of the public sphere (pyramids at Giza) January 24, 2013 (Week 3, Lecture 2) - The essay can be on a historical topic o Functions of the state  Define the community  Conduct relations with others  Maintain internal order  Engage in economic redistribution  Establish and maintain community infrastructure - Lukes’ power and authority o No state can perform this massive range of activities by power or influence alone o The exercise of power costs a great deal so authority is so important  Cheap, doesn’t take energy/resources o Every state must have power to ensure that if authority doesn't work, the state must force a solution (impose authority through state) - FOCUS: importance of supreme political authority  Who is entitled to command, who must obey - The idea of supreme authority in politics (philosophically) was not well articulated in the past - Supreme authority  sovereignty o What is sovereignty? o The ability to govern oneself rather than governed by others = independence o Sovereignty =/= autonomy (make decisions as one pleases) - Why are these political communities independent and autonomous but not sovereign? o Carthage o Rome o Athenian empire o Tang Dynasty  We can call these independent in their environment - Sovereignty emerged in Europe to address a particular set of political conditions o Authority in Europe then did not look like it did now o A nation, like sovereignty is a deeply ideological substance o European conceptualized authority through Christendom o Local lords/chiefs demanded right to be obeyed but would be subjected to the authority of the pope in Rome o In that era, the divine and worldly (imperium) were not so divided as they are today o Church maintained sovereign by using beliefs to extract money from people (indulgences) o Vast cash flow allowed building of vast public works - How did this feudal system last so long? o Strong belief/religious draws o Economic resources (highly localized) o Lack of mobility January 28, 2013 (Week 4, Lecture 1) - The Feudal European Order o Sustained by:  Religion  Economic  Military (technology)  How to combat & conquer  Cosmological  The way they perceived the world  The fundamental ignorance of Europeans had a profound effect on political organization  Lack of knowledge about the world around them  Political authority was not created; passed down by God  Widespread belief & link between religion and political authority  The church sought to maintain a monopoly over literacy to ensure as few could read/write/do simple arithmetic  The Church as a state; wielder of significant power - Collapse of Feudalism o Changes  Religious • Growth of power breeds corruption and its consequences throughout Christendom • Impacting the organization of political authority  Economic • Radical reorganization or the European economy • Growth of cities, urban populations due to trade outside of territory borders; no longer tied to land as serfs  Military • No longer the sources of local power and authority • Cosmological change/intellectual/ideational o Renaissance: rediscovery of Greek and Roman cosmology; much more correct way of looking at the world  Decreasing belief in the temporal power of the Pope  Coercive power of the interdict no longer exists o Changes were interrelated, interacting with one another to produce over time, a radical shift in beliefs and practices - Origins of the modern state o Changes in political authority o Struggle between the opposition against the Catholic Church and the Church’s attempt to impose its power and hegemony on the people o Reformation and Counter reformation o Wars of religion th o Domestic wars in the 16 century th o International wars in the 17 century o Which brand of Christianity would be dominant in a political territory? - The idea of sovereignty o Jean Bodin and the notion of sovereignty (1576)  Solution to the problem of overlapping relations to authority  Majesty (i.e. sovereignty) is supreme and legally unbound power over citizens and subject peoples  Why should local authority be legally unbound?  What you do is to create within your sphere – to give each local authority its own particular set of rights - The struggle for sovereignty o Thirty years war: series of wars that began in 1618 that began with a defenestration of Prague o Coming to power by a Catholic zelt had a profound impact on the Protestants of Bohemia which triggered a series of wars that spread until the Peace of Westphalia (October 1648)  Westphalia ended up impacting the next 300-400 years  Institutionalized by Bodin’s notion  Recognized ‘sovereignty’  Institutionalized the idea that rulers should be supreme to their own domain  Created a huge number of sovereigns in Europe - Sovereignty: a dominant idea o Sovereignty is the organizing principle of world politics  Sovereignty involves the right to exercise supreme political authority within one’s territory  Only one source of legitimate political authority  Sovereignty also involves the recognition of that right  Cannot be accepted through a subjective assertion of this right o The intersubjective nature of sovereignty  Extension of the subjective desire of the people  Sovereignty exists when other sovereigns agree to be dictated by this power  One does not have sovereignty unless they are recognized by others - The Theory of Sovereignty o 1) Supreme political authority in a given territory is indivisible o 2) All people within that territory are obligated to obey the supreme political authority o 3) All other sovereigns will recognize the claim to sovereignty and respect it  Forces a particular way of organizing political authority on everyone  No other sovereign will try to deny or undermine the sovereignty of others - The Reality of Sovereignty o Not all claims to sovereignty are respected o Contested territory o Extraterritoriality – the desire of one sovereign to have its authority extend beyond its borders to that of others o Those who are subjected to representing a sovereign is only tied to the sovereign of which it represents January 31, 2013 (Week 4, Lecture 2) Sovereignty and Federalism - The reality is that not all claims to be sovereign are respected; o Extraterritoriality – imperial-era concessions in China, small regions within China that are governed by the rules and laws of their colonial power. o The US has no problems extending its authority, power, laws to cover or protect all US citizens.  US citizens are obligated to obey the laws of the US even when outside of the US o Think of Cuba as an enemy of the US where all Americans are expected not to deal with Cuba, even when they are not on US soil o The Canadian Extraterritorial act made it illegal to obey American law as a Canadian citizen, when said law is not shared or contradicts with the existing Canadian law o Remember Cuban Wal-Mart Pajamas  Canada’s Bill C-27 was an act to amend the criminal code of Canada to make it an illegal offense to engage in certain types of pedophilic behavior, even when that behavior took place outside of Canada’s borders o In reality, supreme political authority in a given territory is indeed divisible, the question is really how divisible is that authority?  For example, power and authority within Canada is divided between different Ministries  When Canada divides all of the various authorities into the Ministries (i.e. Minister of Finance, Minister of Education, Minister of Defense) all of these various positions will compete to become best o Segmentation: this occurs when the countries divide power and authority by geographic location and territory  The obvious problem with this is that the divided regions will very quickly become independent nations o Unitary Systems  The UK may appear to divide its authority between the monarch and the Parliament, but in reality all of the individual systems, the Scotland Yard, the City of London, etc all work as one central power* o Confederal Systems; February 4, 2013 (Week 5, Lecture 1) Federalism: - Unitary and Con-federal systems: no division as Supreme Political Authority (SPA). - Federations: SPA divided by area and power o We want to understand how one can divide SPA and not have the system collapse upon itself o The division of powers does not always have to be clean and unambiguous - The second assumption of Federalism is that each of these levels is and remains autonomous (i.e. immune from elimination) o The boundaries must be unchangeable o No particular level of government can or should have any sort of ability to control, shrink, eliminate, etc. another level o Some parts of the federation will have more power naturally, some will be larger, richer, and more powerful, this is why it is so important that there is a baseline of equality  For example, every US state sends 2 representatives to the Senate - Each level of government must be able to act directly on the citizen, i.e. taxation, new laws, etc. o Ottawa collects taxes from and on behalf of every province with the exception of Quebec; this is as it should be because they are allowed that level of autonomy - Two levels of court systems are required o Necessity of a procedure for amending the Constitution - Harper wanted to change the nature of our Senate to one that was: equal, elected, and effective. o He found out this is very difficult as it must necessarily be o Citizens must be allowed to express loyalty to more than one level of government.  Think of Texas and the mentality its citizens have, with their loyalty to Texas. o Succession it to be made difficult in theory, but in practice it should be impossible. - There are essentially three ways in which a state may break apart. o Dissolution – The federation is the West Indies, the US from 1777-1790, or Czechoslovakia which dissolved in 1993 and broke up into several states o Expulsion – There is only one case of this, Malaysia in 1965. o Peaceful Secession – Where one part wants to leave and the rest of the federation lets them do this  E.g., in 1905, Norway decided to break away from Sweden, or Montenegro who left the Republic of Serbia and Montenegro. February 7, 2013 (Week 5, Lecture 2) Federalism, continued: - Non-peaceful secession – amending constitution o Very difficult o 1867-1982 could only be amended by British parliament o Even after ‘state of Westminster’ where sovereignty was passed, (1931) we still went to the Brits - After “patriation” in 1982, amending formula changes o Only up to 2 Canadians o Unanimous consent: require to change monarchy, supreme court and amending formula - National matters: “7/50 rule” o Consent of Parliament and legislatures of 2/3 of provinces, provided that those provinces have 50% of population (protects both large and small) - Federal government  consent of Parliament - Matters of provinces  province legislature, parliament Amendments since 1982 - Strengthening Aboriginal rights (7/50) (1983) - Exclusive federal jurisdiction o Appointment formula (1985) o Nunavut representation (1999) - Seven affecting one province o Things like Church, languages, name The Assumption of Federalism - #9 secession to be made difficult in theory, impossible in practice - Secession: resulting in war, often very brutal wars o Confederate States of America (1861) o Biafra (Nigeria, 1967) o Bangladesh (from Pakistan, 1971) o Slovenia, Croatia (from Yugoslavia, 1991) – extremely brutal o Chechnya (from Russia, 1991)  All were very violent, some failed and some succeeded in becoming sovereign  Secession is never easy - Question on Final Exam – Why does war so frequently accompany secession? o #10 – most important assumption – all players in system must be committed to power-sharing  Federalism cannot work unless willing to share power o Case of Vietnam (north and south divided)  Northern government couldn't tolerate southern government, so they couldn't share power. • Northern decided to eliminate southern govt. o Vietnam is a reminder of difficulty to create federalism where power isn’t shared  China has a similar case – it is extremely diverse but government isn’t willing to share power o Ending off – attractions of Federalism February 11, 2013 (Week 6, Lecture 1) Dividing sovereignty: rule function - The attractions of federation o Allows for the consensual merging of independent units (e.g., colonies in America, Canada, Australia, India, Malaysia) o Allows for the protection of local traditions (southern states and slavery; Quebec and language, law, religion) o Allows for the maintenance of separate local/regional/national identity after the creation of a new “national” identity o Allows for governance to be more local and thus more sensitive to local conditions - Dividing sovereignty: three “rule functions” o Making the rules o Implementing the rules o Adjudicating the rules  Who makes, implements, and adjudicates the rules for a polity? • A historical view: absolutism and autocracy • Evolution of separating the functions, institutionalizing them into “branches” Rule- Function Branch Making Legislative Legislative Implementation Executive Executive Adjudication Judicial Judiciary - Dividing supreme political authority among these institutions o Contrast between “parliamentary” and “presidential” systems o Shorthand to describe the British system (and polities modeled on it) and the American system - Parliamentary systems today are the result of historical evolution that stretches over a millennium o Shaped by: o Foreign conquest  Norman conquest 1066  Anglo Saxon roots of constraining the power of the king • Moots (meetings) of the Anglo-Saxons (shire moots and folkmoots) o Opportunity to shape policy despite existence of a hierarchy • The witenagemot (moot of the witan, or counselors) – 100 nobles acting as advisers to the king o Introduction of Normal feudalism – king owned everything and was responsible for all aspects of the rules of community • Struggles against absolutist power o Magna Carta, 1215: feudal assembly  Struggle by nobles to limit the power of the king, elite gathering of feudals  Results of the kind of a feudal struggle that would emerge over the next 500 years o First Parliament summoned by Edward I, 1295 o Limiting monarch’s right to tax, beginning in 1322 o Narrowing the Royal Prerogative  The right of the King and Queen to behave and exercise authority in certain ways  Case of the Prohibitions, 1607 • King was arguing that he had the right b/c he was divinely ordained as king. Drew authority from God – he had right to decide matters of common law. • He could implement and judge the rules  Case of Proclamations, 1611 • The king, by practice, would frequently make law by proclaiming it to be. • Decided that the king cannot simply make any law he wants. • Who was to be the arbiter of law- making and implementation that led to Civil War? • Civil war o English Civil War, 1642-51 o Charles I and Parliament  Eleven years’ tyranny, 1629-40  Charles sought to govern and to expend money not through Parliament but through a host of other mechanisms to raise funds  Eventually, he ran out of money, summoned Parliament and eventually dissolved it b/c they gave him grief for it o Short Parliament, 13 April-5 May 1640 o Long Parliament, 1640-48 (reconvened)  It was in session for the years of the English Civil War o Roundheads vs. Cavaliers  Roundheads – ensured that Parliament had greater authority than king  Cavaliers – supporters of Charles and the Royal Prerogative o Execution of Charles I, 1649 o Commonwealth, 1649-60  Republican rule  Cromwell governed as Lord Protector for much of the 1650s o Restoration of Charles II, 1660 o Conflict between Charles II and Parliament, 1660-85 o Conflict between James II and Parliament, 1685-88 o Birth of James’ Catholic son, June 1688 o Invasion by William III of Orange, November, abdication of James o Glorious Revolution, 1688 o Bill of Rights, 1689 February 14, 2013 (Week 6, Lecture 2) Division of Supreme Authority - Glorious Revolution 1688 - Bill of Rights - Current government structure makes no sense if you just look at the constitution o Parliamentary supremacy > king - Origin of parliamentary structure o Privy council (crowns private council) o After 1688 the privy council had to have confidence of the parliament - Governors chose advisors that command the support confidence of parliament o Cabinet fuses supreme political authority - Who is the executive authority? o The executive being the crown  Authority lies with crown  Criminal prosecution in crown’s name  The crown owns things  Government employees serve the crown  “Royal pregogative” o The crown operates the same way in each jurisdiction  Always acts on advice of a particular group of his/her privy council • Monarch appoints prime minister, by tradition “Dividing” the Crown - Crown = “corporation government” – an office occupied by 1 individual plus his/her successors (clear roles) o Permanent institution - Elizabeth II has several corporations sole in the commonwealth realms o Queen in right of Australia o Queen in right of Ontario o Queen in right of…  Division  Each one is distinct from the other Succession as a Problem - Monarch  first born son or first born daughter if no sons o No Catholics  Initial rules • Now both rules are changed (First born daughter or son) • Can marry Catholics - Our government denies succession as part of Canadian constitution o As of 1982, we make our own laws February 25, 2013 (Week 7, Lecture 1) Notes About the Essay - Next couple of weeks – reflect on written university essays (how to do things right) - Transform outline to essay o Use of sources (no specific number) - Moderated papers only - Don’t use Wikipedia, use sources cited in Wikipedia o Have references but don’t have one for every sentence o Avoid ‘stack of books’ method - The essay is transforming research into text – leave high school behind - If words are not in quotation, they are yours o Figure out regulation one o Sign the academic integrity declaration and take it seriously - Writing Workshops – March 6, 4:30-5:30 in Dupuis 215 Fusing and Separating: The UK - While cabinet government in parliamentary system fuses supreme political authority, it separates the position of head of state and head of government o Head of state (monarch) – personalized repository of sovereignty of the state (reign, not rule) o Head of government – (prime minister)  not sovereign but with effective power - UK model adopted by colonies but with adaptations o  Canada created a Supreme Court o No colony adopted House of Lords system - Applying the British model o Despite adaptation, essence is the same  Monarch or president w/ symbolic action  Prime minister/cabinet  Fused political authority - US system was fashioned after British exp. o Crown was repository of sovereignty, shared w/ popular institution o Americans relocated sovereignty   Sovereignty lies with “the people” who entrust it to governing institutions - Supreme political authority divided o Executive authority  President o Legislative  Congress o Legal  Court - Separating the individuals o President can’t be member of Congress o Vice-president is president of
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