GEOL 106 Lecture Notes - Lake Ontario, Elastic Energy

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*Read Ch 2
Risk Analysis
1. Understand the hazard in general
2. Determine the risk from the hazard for the region of interest (Risk =
Ph x Sh)
Risk Management
1. Determine ways to reduce Ph and/or Sh
2. Do a cost-Benefit analysis
Determines what you can “afford” to do
3. Implement mitigation techniques if warranted
Earthquake Risk Analysis and Risk Management
-For proposed nuclear power plant on Lake Ontario shore just west of
Kingston
Understanding the Hazard
1. What causes earthquakes? motion on faults
2. Where do earthquakes occur? use seismometers
3. What energy do they release? use seismometers
4. What exactly causes damage?
Elastic Rebound Theory
-The rigid part of the Earth can store elastic energy
-When it breaks, the elastic energy is released
-Bends like a hockey stick, then snaps under pressure
Faults
-Earthquakes are associated with faults
-Earthquakes happen when:
1. there is an episode of movement on a pre-existing fault
2. A fault forms
-In both cases, stored energy is released
-For a big earthquake, fault motion needs to be only a metre or so
-Strike-slip and dip-slip faults: recall GEOL 104
Seismometers
-Detect energy from an earthquake
- Measure distance to an earthquake and thus locate it
-measure the energy released during an earthquake
Earthquake Terminology
-Recall focus, magnitude, etc from GEOL 104
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