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HIST 122 - Semester 2, Week 1.docx

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HIST 122
Amitava Chowdhury

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Semester 2, Week 1 HIST 122 The Industrial Revolution I. Defining the Industrial Revolution What is it not…  Not the beginning of industrialization  Not the beginning of innovation  Not the beginning of economic growth  It was a change in the degree of change o A fundamental discontinuity Timeframe th th  Mnd-late 18 century to early-mid 19 century  2 Industrial Rev. – 1880-1911(/1914?) Defining the Process…  Series of major technological innovations  New modes of transportations  A factory-based economy  Accelerated structural change in technology, economy, and society  Revolutionized the economy of the West and eventually the rest of the world Inventions and Innovations  (1) Advances in broad fronts: o Iron smelting – cotton – sources of power o Textile, metallurgy, mining, transport, agriculture, and power production  Implications?  (2) Two clusters of inventions: o (a) Before 1733 (1712-1733) – Newcomen engine, flying shuttle o (b) After 1768 – Jenny, water frame, Watt‟s engine, seed drill, etc. Other Innovations  Chemicals: alkalis and chlorine  Machine making tools  Paper industry  Gas lighting  Road building  Bridges  Food canning, matchsticks, safety lamps, lawn mowers, vaccinations, etc. Initial Impact  Initially very limited impact on the economy: from 1760 to 1800 only 0.2% increase in per capita income  Financial constraints due to rapid population expansions and new wars and taxes  End of independent producers  Harshness of industrial life  Squalid industrial towns – high mortality II. Emergence and Processes Conditions at the outset…  Significant rise in population  Occupational specialization  New navigational techniques  Banking system and financial institutions Why Britain?  Single reason theories: o Traditional agrarian structures in continent o Difference in English „character‟  Hartwell‟s continuation theories o Gradual industrialization  Ecological and economic theories Ecological and Economic Explanations  Coal deposits  Iron ore  Colonies abroad  Expansion of market  New sources of funding  Innovations  Battle of Plassey  GB gets money from Bengal  Directly effect industrial rev?  Caribbean plantations  “Racism did not create slavery, slavery created racism”  “Profit form slavery  enriched merchants” o Now not supported  Slaves provided a ready market, as well as the raw materials themselves III. Social an Economic Characteristics Emergence of Factories  Previous domestic-based industries  Putting out system
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