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HIST 124 Sept. 10.docx

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HIST 124
Steven J Maynard

HIST 124 Sept. 10 “The Loonie Toonie Apporach to Canadian History”  Coins + Canadian History = Canada as a Capitalist Country  Canada: Liberal-Capitalist  Liberalism/Capitalism – fairly new concept (les than 200 years old)  Special Loonies and Toonies ($28 million spent by government)  They celebrate the 200 year anniversary of the war of 1812  The messages depicted by the government in these cases are not all accurate -The first nations people did not fight along-side the British, but rather to defend their own land. (Tecumseh: First Nations Leader in war of 1812) “A History of the Present” – Foucalt What does this mean/entail?  Genealogy: Looking for traces of the present in the past. Ex: Foucalt questioned when we became a society of surveillance (“Discipline & Punish – The Birth of the Prison”) How will we utilize the concept of genealogy?  We will trace the genealogy of the liberalist-capitalist Canada that we know today. -When? Who? Why? How? Other possibilities? **History of the Present is different from Presentism. Presentism: Judging the past by our terms in the present. (“Uncritical adherence to present-day attitudes, esp. the tendency to interpret past events in terms of modern values and concepts.”) Why?  Gain a new perspective on every day things. -rich/poor divide -French-Canadian issues -relationship with Britain -multiculturalism What goes into making Canada a liberal/capitalist country?  People living, thinking, and behaving in ways that are congruent with liberal/capitalism  History of ordinary Canadians -How we became liberal/capitalist  How did we come to work for wages?  How hockey, shopping, etc. became part of liberal/capitalism  How did we acquire cultural diversity and equality? **Canadians becoming liberal/capitalists did not happen smoothly. -is it the best way? “Where there is power, there is resistance.” – Foucalt (we will be paying attention to resistance as well) Why this approach to Canadian history?  If power is always met with resistance, then the past is never truly settled. If the past is not over, our present becomes open-ended and subject to transformation. Sept. 17 The Collectivist Logic of Life Among First Nations Katarokwi  Fort Cataraqui  Fort Frontenac  King’s Town  Kingston Kingston and Queen’s sit on the traditional lands of the Anishinaabe and Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) Why do we name our shopping malls, etc after First Nations?  Simpler times We need to stop oversimplifying First Nations’ issues Historiography: trying to figure out why historians are researching the things that they study.  Going into 17 century, first nations people made of the majority of the population  Skilled negotiators, powerful diplomats  We view them as the prelude to “real” history  “New France” in history books  French Canadians were the minority. The vast majority of the population was first nations  first nations people could speak several languages -this was necessary for trading goods, etc.  Iroquois people – not the same as the Iroquoian -Iroquoian: Iroquois speaking people First Nations on the Plains: Black Foot, Plains’ Cree How/when/how social formations led us to becoming a liberal/capitalist society?  3 social formations in history prior to liberal/capitalist society o longest-lasting and first: the kin ordered social formation (lineage & family/clan-based OR related by culture or heritage) LOOK TO NOTEBOOK Sept. 24 The ‘Fatal Impact’ Debate  mik’maq woman dreamt of an island o Island turned out to be a European ship: maststrees, peoplebears o The people were alarmed o Aboriginals believe that Europeans arriving in NA caused a huge impact on kin-ordered social order and religion -Not everyone agrees (some pay a price, but there was a lot of interplay back and forth that needs to be taken into consideration)  Was trade and European tradition something that threw aboriginal communities into disarray? **Alexander Mackenzie  first European to meet the West Coast  When he arrived, European goods were already there (trade between Aboriginals in the East) o Europeans brought new marvels (muskets, steel knives, beads)  they were keen to trade their furs for these items o Aboriginal people dominated the trading customs **Montaignais Indians = Innu people  Native people dictated customs that needed to be followed o For trade to occur, they had to establish metaphorical relationships between traders (referred to Europeans as “fathers” and “brothers”) -these had different meanings in the different cultures -In Europe, the father has authority over his children -In First nation societies, the father, chief, etc. could not hold power over his people/children -he had to display generosity and care for his people o Before trading could begin, gifts had to be exchanged, and pipes had to be smoked -each year, chiefs would arrive in anticipation of gifts, and Europeans had to oblige, even though it was not in accordance with their European cultures -Europeans had to learn to speak the aboriginal languages, aboriginals would not learn the tongue of Europeans **Trade did not negatively impact aboriginal cultures  Disease was the most potent method in colonization – Europeans brought diseases over that the aboriginal people did not have immunity to o Shamans were dying from illnesses, but Europeans were able to help without falling ill  gave the Aboriginals a false impression of the Europeans and their spiritual powers -diseases: smallpox, measles, cholera  European introduction of alcohol to aboriginals developed into a destructive force very slowly o Europeans introduces it to lower the inhibitions or Aboriginals to make them easier to manage and coheres.  In a kin-ordered social formation, the exchange of people was customary o Trade was not an economic transaction – it was for forming alliances o It was not surprising to aboriginal people when the Europeans introduced the Jesuits -they did not realize that they would be the shock-troops of religious transition  Religious conversion had a huge impact on aboriginal peoples o Undermined basic components of kin-ordered social formation o Consensus decision making was not encouraged by European culture and religion o Not all native peoples would allow these changes and would kill the Jesuits o French efforts more successful: 115 Jesuits came to North America (young and very well educated): they believed that they could become Christian while maintaining some of their culture. Brought religion without first frenchifying first. (Opposite of English approach) o English method: in order for aboriginals to convert, they had to become domesticated change the entire order of their culture (only about 500 converted) o Jesuits, however, were not flexible about everything (such as religion) -They could not celebrate their religion -Mortification of flesh -Send aboriginal peoples out with whips/chains to lash themselves (masochistic tasks)[Jesuit view of spirituality and practicing religion] -Could not consult shamans -Many First Nations people abandoned their religion and berdache -if they did not celebrate Christianity they would go straight to hell o Native people successfully converted many Europeans to their native way of life  Kin-ordered social formation was eventually undermined. o Happened sooner and faster on east coast o Happened slower in the plains (not as drastic) -fur trade -marriage à la façon du pays – marriage on tradition of the land  many fur traders married aboriginal women. -french Canadian-aboriginal offspring  Métis **James Douglas  governor of Vancouver Island. (His wife, Amelia Douglas, was part aboriginal)  Very different attitude on west coast  Important legislation: o Royal Proclamation (1763): British defeated the French  “No private person be allowed to make any private purchase to Indians on any said land belonging to the Indians.” -this recognized that aboriginal peoples had title to land that was not yet crowned. o Act to Protect Indian Lands(1850) “For the better protection of the land and properties of Indians” Tightening up on the definition of “Indian” o 1869: Assimilation of native people -men over the age of 21 who met a test could vote (prove that they had been educated, could read and write, were debt-free, and had good moral character) -if test was passed, they were given 50 acres of land, and money -becoming civilized meant giving up “Indian” status  however, taking the test was voluntary -wife and children also lost status (not voluntary for them) o 1867 (Confederation): -gave federal power over native choices -mandatory enfranchisement (if native woman married non-native man, woman would lose all native status. Oct. 1 New France and Hierarchies of the Soil Coureur de Bois  Fur trade – significant part of Canadian history  Did not decide to make a colony in NA Habitants  Put down roots and made up the majority of the French-speaking population in NA -second social formation  France claims North America for the first time around 1534 (Cartier)  1608 – After an initial attempt to settle in Port Royal, the French moved to Quebec - Samuel de Champlain attempted to start colony  1663 – Louis XVI decides to make Quebec a royal colony  1712 – 1760: population grew immensely  Nulle terre sans seigneur o Cens et Rentes o Corvée o Lods et Ventes o Banalitiés  Land ownership was very different  No land without a seigneur (Nulle terre sans seigneur)  Not just one owner of land o The King of France (each person is holding a plot of land for the King) o The Habitants (made key decisions about the land: what crops to grow, whether to apply manure to the fields) – if they paid rent they could feel secure in their ownership. They could sell the land if they chose to. -Habitants’ right to sell the land is restricted by the seigneur’s right to grab it back at the moment of the sale. -Seigneurs could revoke the habitants’ right to the land, and could make decisions about the land.  Cents et rent – annual payment of rent in the form of money or produce  Corvée –  Lods et Vents – fee paid when land changes hands -Fees applied to allow access to common pasture  Banalités: seigneurs take a 5% cut of habitants’ grain  The position of habitants in New France was nothing like peasants in Europe o Basic personal freedom o Control over how to use land  However, it was not all good  45% of wheat grown to habitant had to be handed over to seigneur just to pay the fee of wheat.  Most habitants were behind in their dues, and could never get out of debt -They were never able to accumulate surplus -Hindering the development of capitalism -Sharp social, economic hierarchy  Society divided up in New France between those who worked, those who fought, and those who prayed o Work – habitants The ‘Productive Household’ and the habitant Family Economy  Satisfied their needs by their own efforts on their land, and in their home  Without women to bear children and to do household tasks, the habitant family economy would collapse  People married early and quickly  Most families had 5 or 6 children (if one parent has died)  If not, most families had 8 or 9.  Key to high growth rate: New France’s enthusiasm for state of marriage Les Filles du Roi  Shipped from Europe to find husbands and bear children  population growth  Church would dissolve a marriage that produced no children on the grounds that a curse had been passed, leaving the couple barren. The Church  Exacted many forms of payment from Habitants  Had to pay rent on their pews, and contribute money when plate is passed around Seigniorial Social Formation **Seigniorial Social Formation (Chart)  online  Immediate social relations: structured primarily by the productive household  Seigniorial social formation  still in place in mid 19 century  In 1854, the seigniorial social formation was abolished  Habitants were not enthused by this o Liberal land reforms turn everything over to the seigneur  English – free hold land system (modern system)  Demographic restrictions  the end of seigniorial social formation (as population grows, land must be broken up and redistributed) Port Royal, L’Acadie  Same social formation, very different society  Sitting on a fault line dividing two great empires (French and British) o Gets bounced back and forth between French and British ownership  1710 – English ownership  Acadia was often overlooked - Nobody to enforce rules o Seigneurs did not live up to assigned duties o Habitans in Acadia did not take the seigniorial system seriously  Came up with irrigation system (dykes) that allowed them to yield very fertile soil o Could export large amounts of livestock in exchange for things that they really wanted o Acadians lived very well o Incredible demographic expansion  They did not pledge allegiance to either side (French/English) so as not to anger the other  Social barriers played no part in the decision of marriage  not as much of an hierarchy  Acadians did not use surplus to support religious expansion or development in Acadia  Neutrality did not last forever o Asked to sign an unconditional oath of allegiance to Britain o Agreed to sign a conditional one – they would not pick sides o 1700s – Britain would not accept that anymore Le Grand Derangement – the Acadian Deportation  Britain attacked Acadia – burning villages, taking livestock  Acadians (with help of Mi’kmaq) participated in guerilla warfare against British  Expulsion of Acadians in Maritimes and fall of St. Louisburg is just a small part of the British Conquest of New France  Acadians become first Europeans to truly become North American people, and Canada’s first tragic exiles Oct. 15 The Conquest of Myth and Memory General Wolfe: The “Dauntless Hero”?  Wolfe feared letting his parents down, so when he left, he said his goodbyes through a letter.  Wolfe thought he was dying  Deeply neurotic – haunted by night thoughts  He as entrusted with leading the land and water expedition up the St. Lawrence to capture Quebec o 40,000 troops o He expects to be welcomed to Quebec with open arms by the habitants o He did not come to destroy and repopulate, but merely, to subdue and bring them into subjection to the king of England o Habitants refuse to comply, and fight back o Wolfe threatens them with violence – burns their houses, ruins their crops o He waits for the habitants to come out of the fort at Quebec City, and bombs them day and night  The Plans of Abraham (1759) o Sends men across the river with ammunition and guns, and order them to scale the walls and assemble in the cornfield just outside of the city. o Wolfe was killed, Montcombe died o Over in 15 minutes  French point of view: English oppress the French (see license plates: “Je me souviens”  English point of view: New France is an obstacle in the way of creating a strong colony  Clash of social formations o British rule meant that there would be an end of Native/French relations & alliance o The Conquest as Socio-Economic Process  Despite internal growth, by 1760’s there were still only approx. 70,000 French in New France  English number more than 1,000,000 people  French were vastly outnumbered by the English o What was happening in Europe at that time? - Enclosures -10’s of thousands of Scottish are booted off the land to make room for livestock, so they come to Canada -Happens in France – more rebellious; stay on land -Happens in Britain -Very different state policies in France and Britain -France – monarchy (keeps tight control over immigration) -Britain – monarchy (but with limited powers, because it is subjected to parliament.) -France – more about trade: coming to NA to trade, and then returning to France -Britain – more focused on settling in NA  Despite pressures on French, Quebec is still with us o The Royal Proclamation (1763) – attempt to impose an early liberal- capitalism o The Quebec Act – an emerging strategy to allow the French their laws, language, etc., but to restrict them to a narrower frame. (why there are two languages in Canada) o Governers in QC – all aristocrats  American Revolution – QC boundaries reduced again -Habitants were either indifferent of welcoming to the Americans -Wanted to see which side would win before forming alliances and declaring loyalties  Constitutional Act (1791) o Guarantees basic points of QC act including French civil law, seignieurealism, however it froze the expansion of seigneurialism o Appointed a legislative council o Another boundary: between lower/upper Canada -loyalists fleeing from US, coming into Canada  all about free-hold land system (upper Canada) o Federalism & beginnings of liberal democracy o Gave liberal franchise (right to vote) – any land-owners who possess 2 pounds, women could vote (until 1834) o Reserved a lot of aristocratic privilege Post-Conquest Period  QC fared far better than anyone would have predicted in the past  Faint beginnings of changes in social formations o For ordinary people, a reconsideration of their entire way of life. Oct. 22 Charles Renaut and Marie-Joanne  Charles made his living fishing for cod at habitation of Scatterie on Cape Breton  Spends spring-fall in NA, then returns to France o Eventually, he decides to stay o Left his wife (Marie-Joanne) and daughter in France o She begs him to return o Sends him care packages Merchant-Capital Social Formation  Hybrid social formation  Modern AND pre-modern  Historical Background: o Emerge as the product of two large historical forces: rise to prominence of the merchant, and the absolutist state in Europe. The modern world takes shape in 15 and 16 centuries when Europe begins monumental economic transformation that will eventually envelop the entire world. Before this, Europe was not a likely contender for world economic growth. In the western hemisphere, there was the Inga Empire, in Mexico there is the Meso-American empires. Why Europe? European Feudalism. The power structure is much less centralized. In towns and cities, there is a space created for the merchants to organize themselves based on their own interests and become a formidable presence. The growing role of the merchant is highly ambiguous, and in the ambiguity, you can begin to see the two sides of merchant-capital. Merchants I want to maximize my own profits. Merchants did not revolutionize the means of production. They were content with using existing ways of producing things. They made us of the former social formations. They were more interested in trade. They didn’t care how goods were produced. They wanted control over trade so that they would have more power and influence over trade. To gain monopolies, they would try to get it from the state. o The rise of the absolutistic state – strengthening power of central state. The state gave monopoly privileges to the merchants. Merchants get on board with absolutist state. o This encourages a spirit of independence and adventure  we find archetypes like the heroic explorer, etc. o People tried to flee absolutism o Cartier hopes to find a passageway to the North, so that he can bar it and gain riches.  4 Great Social Formations in Canadian History: o Kin-Ordered Social Formation (to 1876 – the “Indian Act”) o Seigneurial Social Formation (1627-1854) o Merchaant Capital Social Formation (Early 1500s to 1904 when French relinquish fishery to NF residents) o Liberal Capitalist Social formation  Slave trade – created a need for slaves on plantations to be fed cheaply o Encouraged bilism th o Trans-Atlantic “Triangular” Trade (18 century)  France and Europe became prominent in trading  Colonies should be the sources of raw materials but not be in competition with the mother country  The beaver – huge factor in the growing economy of Europe.  the pelt becomes currency. (in Canada)  m-b (made beaver)  main form of fixed currency.  Hudson’s Bay Company – when it received its charter, Charles had no idea he was granting to his company a sub-continent of 1.4 million square miles  HBC became merchant empire  They achieved their status through a charter right from the absolutist state – they were guaranteed a legal monopoly  No one else was allowed to trade in that person’s territory  Started to take on many functions of a state o Could administer law o Controlled military o Made relationships with natives and took over costs of protecting their land from the French  Merchant Empire Social Formation – oversees company exercise political sovereignty over their trading state.  Natives only traded furs for things that they wanted  HBC would sometimes cheat natives by tampering with weights  They would also take care of Native families during hard times Cod Fisheries  More important than fur trade in Atlantic Region  Cod became a valuable commodity (dry cod) o French processed fish inside ships o English needed land based facilities  sparking immigration  Eventually English claim beats out French in Newfoundland  Cod fisheries – empire  West–country merchants were primarily involved  Production takes place in pre capitalist frameworks o Indentured servitude  In exchange for dry/salted cod, merchant would give supplies from store (truck system)  Merchants used fisheries to look after their store installations  Under-the-radar settlement starts to happen  Newfoundland merchants controlled law  Inhibited economic development in NF Fort Louisburg  Huge competition to NF cod fisheries  Mariners from Louisburg spanned the globe  BMO traced back to legalized piracy  Charles Renaut died – drowned in North Atlantic in 1730, 3 days after Christmas. Oct. 29 Paupers and Other Peeps A Pre-Condition of Liberal Capitalism  Loyalists: Immigrants from England who came in through the US. o Maritimes get about 30 000 o 2 000 to QC
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