HLTH 101 Lecture Notes - Severe Combined Immunodeficiency, Cystic Fibrosis, Opportunistic Infection

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Published on 16 Oct 2011
School
Queen's University
Department
Health Studies
Course
HLTH 101
Professor
TOPIC 6. INTERNAL ECOLOGY: INDIVIDUAL
FACTORS POTENTIALLY ASSOCIATED WITH
INFECTIOUS DISEASE RISK
1/ IMMUNOCOMPETENCE
Immunosuppression
-decrease in hosts natural ability to resist microbes
-results in:
a) opportunistic infection
-endogenous microbe causes disease
b) susceptibility to new infection
c) disease from attenuated virus in vaccine. Ie. Sabin poliovaccine
Causes of immunosuppression:
i. Inherited Diseases
-ie. Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (boy in bubble)
-often x-linked
-others: DiGeorge disease can’t make enough T-cells
Cystic Fibrosis inability to clear impurities
ii. Aging
-decrease in immune response (especially T-cells)
-often take anti-inflammatory drugs
-decrease in effective immunizations
iii. Prematurity
-only a few weeks can make a difference as the immune
system develops late.
-results in underdeveloped immune system
Ie. increased risk in group B streptocci disease
iv. Radiation Exposure
-causes neutropenia (reduced neutrophils (ie. white blood
cells) which destroy microbes
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Document Summary

Decrease in hosts natural ability to resist microbes. Endogenous microbe causes disease: susceptibility to new infection, disease from attenuated virus in vaccine. Others: digeorge disease can"t make enough t-cells. Only a few weeks can make a difference as the immune system develops late. Ie. increased risk in group b streptocci disease: radiation exposure. Causes neutropenia (reduced neutrophils (ie. white blood cells) which destroy microbes. Still unclear but thought to be due to methological problems. Suppression of immune system to not reject baby. Generally few problems if well nourished, but increased risk if not. 39 weeks into pregnancy = drop in interleukin response (response to activate immune system: malnutrition. Less than 80% at ideal weight = malnutrition. Reduced capacity of barrier to infection (skin loss) Increased exposure to invasive treatment (germs, bacteria: malignancy. Immune suppression by human leukocyte antigen complex (to prevent rejection of foreign, transplanted organ) Cdc: 1/3 of prescriptions for antibiotics unnecessary (especially colds)

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