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Lecture 1

MICR 270 Lecture 1: Introduction to Imunne System

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Microbiology and Immunology
MICR 270

Module 1 2017-01-11 2:37:00 AM Lymph • clear fluid that have leaked out of the capillary walls into interstitial space • They travel to the lymph nodes to be filtered, this is where antigen specific immunity is generated • Lymph vessels carry lymph to the heart where it renters the blood stream • B cells and T cells are mostly found in the lymph Nodes • Small bean shaped • Filled with lymphocytes that recognized antigens Primary Lymph Organs- sites where lymph cells originate(T-cells and B-cells) Thymus- where T-cells mature Bone Marrow- origin of all progenitor cells, B-cells mature Secondary Lymph Organs- lymphocytes interact with one another becoming more antigen specific Spleen- filters the blood and eliminates antigens Lymph Nodes- filters the lymph and eliminates antigens Mucosal Associated Lymphoid Tissue Module 2 2017-01-11 2:37:00 AM * the immune system can recognize self and non-self, cells express MHC on their surface as a marker of “self”. The immune system recognize specific protein on the surface of foreign antigens. Steps: pathogen enters body, immune system recognizes, activates effector cells or eliminate infected cell. Adaptive immunity: eliminates specific pathogens and provide immunological memory. Takes a few days. Specific. humoral mediated- antibodies (made by B-cells) cell mediated- T-cells Innate: early defense and alerts adaptive of invasion. Present before the onset of the infection. Non-specific. • Physical barriers • Phagocytic leukocytes • Dendritic cells • NK cells • Plasma proteins Module 1 2017-01-11 2:37:00 AM *immune cells are made from stem cells in the fetal liver then circulated through the extracellular fluid. B-cells- mature in bone marrow T-cells- mature in thymus Hematopoeitic stem cells- found in bone marrow, self renewing, can give rise to all cells types within the body (pluripotent). Can differeinated into 2 types of progenitor cells: • Myeloid progenitor cells- differentiate into most of the innate immune cells o Monocytes/Macrophage: engulf and kill bacteria. In blood they are monocytes but as they enter damaged tissue they before macrophages. o Neutrophil: mature in bone marrow and migrate to mature tissue, lifespan of a few days. Phagocytes containting lytic enzymes like peroxidase stores in granules which help in elimination. o Basophil: Non-phagocytic granulocytes, release chemical mediators from their granules. Major role in allergic reactions. o Eosinphil: Macrophages, secrete contents of their granules to damage parasites membrane. • Lymphoid progenitor cells- defferinated into cells of the adaptive immune system. o B Lymphocytes (humoral): “native” until coming into contact with
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