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Lecture 3

Lecture Notes Week 3 (1).docx

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PSYC 235
Christopher Bowie

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The Mood Disorders Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) Biploar I Disorder Bipolar II Disorder Dysthymia Cyclothymia Unipolar vs. Bipolar Mood Disorder  Directionality  Cyclicity  Severity  Duration  Polarity Introduction to Major Depression MD different from “normal” depressed mood:  Severity of symptoms  Number of symptoms  Duration of disturbance in functioning Depression vs. Moodiness  There is an arbitrary line for diagnosis The Burden of Depression  Point Prevalence = 5% (1.35 million in Canada)  Lifetime Prevalence = 10-15%  Average age of onset = early 20s  Sex Ratio = 2:1  Social cost - $14.4 billion in Canada / $475 million in Ontario  70% of suicides are diagnosed with Depression o Depression increases suicide risk 4-folf Untreated depression  Lower graduation rates  Below average grades  Lower occupational status  Physical health problems  Relationship problems  Substance abuse Defining Major Depression Depressed Mood / Loss of interest-Pleasure + 3-4 other symptoms = MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER Symptoms of Major Depression 1. Depressed mood  Must meet at 2. Loss of interest in activities and/or people least one of these 3. Marked insomnia or hypersomnia 4. Low energy 5. Appetite disturbance 6. Psychomotor retardation or agitation (lack of productive activity) 7. Feelings of worthlessness or guilt 8. Poor concentration or indecision 9. Thoughts of death and/or suicide A total of 5 or more of 9 Major Depression Defined  Symptoms must last at least 2 weeks (average = 6 months)  Symptoms must cause clinically significant distress or impairment  50-90% experience recurrent episodes Impairment Symptoms significantly interfere with normal functioning:  At work/school: absenteeism, poor evaluation, conflict  In relationships: no interest in activities, withdrawal/isolation, increase in conflict Depression is associated with:  Substance use and abuse  Delinquency  School dropout  Early pregnancy  Poor social functioning  Occupational impairment  Career dissatisfaction  Low psychological well-being  Health difficulties  Suicidal behaviours Episodic vs. Chronic Depression Chronic Depression:  More severe symptoms  More comorbitity  Higher levels of stress  Poorer social support  Poorer response to treatment  Greater family history of affective disorders  **No difference within chronic groups Dysthymia Persistently depressed mood that continues for at least 2 years (can’t have gone
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