How crime and deviance are responded to
How individuals are labelled
Affect of labels on behaviour
o Instructional response
o Formal response to individual,
o Social response
o Informal response
o What happens when deviance occurs in social life and
receives a response formally and informally
How deviants are responded
Social response, what response means
Human nature was passive
o Passive beings forced into being a criminal by reaction
of others and societal definition of engaging in crime ,
o Doesn't not seek explanation for causes of crime.
o Does not guarantee label will occur
Label does not determine future behaviour
Social reaction and labeling has influence and we are
influenced by how others think about us, we still have
say in how we interpret that label
Nature of society
o See society as lacking consensus,
o Conflict based approach,
o Social norms and crime are socially constructed,
o Law tends to benefit economic and social power
and penalizes those who are powerless.
Probability of being brought under control of
criminal justice system becomes a function of
wealth and status.
How you fit into society.
Eg minorities being arrested, lower class.
Brought upon formal control agents, prisons, cops,
Nature of crime
o Nothing inherently harmful
o Crime are acts that are defined as crimes, requires
social reaction, interpretation.
Things are bad because of reactions and labels
o Labels occur because of reaction
o Trapped within deviant identity How can response deter crime
Crime can increase by our reaction of crime
Focuses on individual levels of interaction,
Opposed to group interaction or position in social structure
Describe the little social worlds that form a society
Relationships, social interactions, formulates meaning
o Impacts people and how they would react in certain
situations based on their experience
o An approach that focuses on interactions through which
people accomplish social situations and define deviance
Different meanings for different situations, how it impacts
Popular in 1960
Charles Horton Cooley
Looking Glass Self
Understanding ourselves is a reflection of our perceptions of
how others react to us
We see ourselves how we think others see us
How we think, feel and react are shaped by social interactions
of others and how others perceive us
Begins at moment of birth, verbal and nonverbal
Different situations, different people, different
interactions that dictate how we understand and how
we should behave. Eg. Texting in class vs texting at home
Self Fulfilling Prophecy-
Social reaction that label us as delinquent can be a cause of
Self concept is a reflection of how others think about us,
o We believe we are criminals because others labeled us
o Occasional or situational behaviour that can be
excused or rationalized by person or audience.
o Personally is generally a good person.
o Part of everyday life, process, label, not by a single act.
o Result of societal response to behaviour, process of
deviation and response which leads to labeled. o Person cannot escape label.
o Individual begins to see themselves as label.
o Deviant event comes to attention to those with power
to label who can apply negative label.
o Person starts to take on that label, rearranges life,
behaviour around consequences of deviant act.
o Resocialization. Process.
Can produce deviance amplification
o Amplifying the situation, problem, label.
o Become trapped in identity.
o Escalating cycle of new behaviour, attitudes, identity is
Labeling perspective, Interactionism theory
Interaction between deviant act and those who respond to it
Social change, questioning of authority - context
All research previously of criminals was too diverse
o Included innocent people who were wrongfully