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GMS401-Chapter 7.docx

3 Pages

Global Management Studies
Course Code
GMS 401
Sam Lampropoulos

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CHAPTER 7: DESIGN OF W ORK SYSTEMS Introduction and Job Design pg. 221 Work system design involves job design (content and method) determination of working conditions, work measurements (establishment of standard times) and compensation. Work System Design important because it directly affects an organization’s productivity.  Job Design involves specifying the content and method of a job. Objective to increase long-term productivity, safety and quality of work life Job Design has two schools of thought: Specialization is a primary issue of disagreement between these two approaches 1. Efficiency School: Emphasizes a systematic, logical approach to labor cost reduction. Refined version of Fredrick Taylor’s scientific management concepts. a. Specialization focusing the jobs to a narrow scope. Gives ability to concentrate efforts and become proficient at that type of work 2. Behavioral School: Satisfaction of wants / needs of workers as a motivator for increased productivity. a. Job Enlargement giving workers a larger portion of the total task. Makes the job more interesting by increasing the variety of skills required. b. Job Rotation periodically exchange jobs to avoid having employees stuck in repetitive jobs. Broaden learning experiences and lets them fill in for other employees more often c. Job Enrichment increase level of responsibility for planning and coordination (vertical loading) d. Self-directed team group of employees who perform the same function and are empowered to make decisions / changes in their work. Benefits: Fewer managers are needed, higher quality, productivity, and worker satisfaction Method Analysis pg. 223 Method Analysis breaks down the job into sequence of tasks, eliminating some to make job more efficient. Basic procedure: 1. Identify the job to be studied and gather all pertinent facts about its operations 2. Discuss the job with the operator and supervisor 3. Analyze and document the present method of performing the job 4. Question the present method and propose a new method Process Charts are used to review and examine the overall sequence of an operation by focusing on the improvements of the operator or the flow of material. Shows non- productive steps of a process. Uses these questions: 1. Why is there a delay, storage or inspection this point? 2. How can travel distances be shortened or avoided? 3. Can an operation be eliminated? 1 C HAPTER 7: D ESIGN OFW ORK SYSTEMS Worker-machine chart Used to determine portions of a work cycle during which an operator and equipment are busy or idle. One use is to determine how many machines the operator can manage Motion Study Frank Gilberth Systematic study of human motions used to perform an operation or tasks. Eliminate unnecessary motions and best sequence of motions for maximum efficiency. Most used techniques or tools are: 1. Motion economy principles - Guidelines for designing motion – efficient work procedures. Three categories: use of arms and body, arrangement of the workplace and design of tools and equipment. 2. Analysis of elementary motions – Basic elemental motions into which a job can be broken do
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