CHAPTER 7: DESIGN OF W ORK SYSTEMS
Introduction and Job Design pg. 221
Work system design involves job design (content and method) determination of working
conditions, work measurements (establishment of standard times) and compensation.
Work System Design important because it directly affects an organization’s productivity.
Job Design involves specifying the content and method of a job. Objective to
increase long-term productivity, safety and quality of work life
Job Design has two schools of thought: Specialization is a primary issue of disagreement
between these two approaches
1. Efficiency School: Emphasizes a systematic, logical approach to labor cost
reduction. Refined version of Fredrick Taylor’s scientific management concepts.
a. Specialization focusing the jobs to a narrow scope. Gives ability to
concentrate efforts and become proficient at that type of work
2. Behavioral School: Satisfaction of wants / needs of workers as a motivator for
a. Job Enlargement giving workers a larger portion of the total task. Makes
the job more interesting by increasing the variety of skills required.
b. Job Rotation periodically exchange jobs to avoid having employees stuck
in repetitive jobs. Broaden learning experiences and lets them fill in for
other employees more often
c. Job Enrichment increase level of responsibility for planning and
coordination (vertical loading)
d. Self-directed team group of employees who perform the same function
and are empowered to make decisions / changes in their work. Benefits:
Fewer managers are needed, higher quality, productivity, and worker
Method Analysis pg. 223
Method Analysis breaks down the job into sequence of tasks, eliminating some to make
job more efficient. Basic procedure:
1. Identify the job to be studied and gather all pertinent facts about its operations
2. Discuss the job with the operator and supervisor
3. Analyze and document the present method of performing the job
4. Question the present method and propose a new method
Process Charts are used to review and examine the overall sequence of an operation by
focusing on the improvements of the operator or the flow of material. Shows non-
productive steps of a process. Uses these questions:
1. Why is there a delay, storage or inspection this point?
2. How can travel distances be shortened or avoided?
3. Can an operation be eliminated?
1 C HAPTER 7: D ESIGN OFW ORK SYSTEMS
Worker-machine chart Used to determine portions of a work cycle during which an
operator and equipment are busy or idle. One use is to determine how many machines the
operator can manage
Motion Study Frank Gilberth Systematic study of human motions used to perform an
operation or tasks. Eliminate unnecessary motions and best sequence of motions for
maximum efficiency. Most used techniques or tools are:
1. Motion economy principles - Guidelines for designing motion – efficient work
procedures. Three categories: use of arms and body, arrangement of the
workplace and design of tools and equipment.
2. Analysis of elementary motions – Basic elemental motions into which a job can
be broken do