Organizational Behavior - MHR 405
Amir Ali Golbazi
Leadership is the ability of an individual to inﬂuence, motivate and enable others to contribute toward to the effectiveness
and success of organizations of which they are members. There are four distinct perspectives on leadership: Trait
perspective, Behavioral perspective, Contingency perspective, & Transformational perspective.
Trait or Competency Leadership Perspective
The Trait (Competency) Perspective of leadership proposed that leaders are more likely to have certain personality,
social, physical, or intellectual traits that non-leaders. Competencies are learned behaviors such as skills, abilities, and
values. Here are some competencies associated with effective leaders.
- Drive & Energy
- Leadership Motivation The Path Goal (Contingency) Theory of Leadership
- Honesty & Integrity
- Self Conﬁdence
- Cognitive Ability
- Knowledge of the business
- Emotional intelligence
And Leadership Agility is the ability to make wise and effective decisions during complex changing conditions.
Behavioral Leadership Perspective
This proposed that effective leaders behave in certain desireable ways.
Leaders whom have a Task Oriented Style (Production Oriented, Autocratic) spell out duties and speciﬁc tasks, tells
people what to do and how, ensures rules are followed, and encourages peak performance. This style is also known as
the Initiating Instructor.
The leader with an Employee, People Oriented, or Democratic style is one who shows trust and respect, while
engaging in two way communication, listens, encourages, hive recognition, and provides socio-emotional support or
The third leadership style is Laissez-Faire or Uninvolved Leadership Style. This is when an employee centered
leadership style in which the manager permits his or her employees to function within prescribed limits. Although some
leaders display both a high concern for people and the task. This is known as a Balanced Leadership Style in which the
manager displays both people orientation and task mindedness.
THE LEADERSHIP (MANAGERIAL)
This is a model that proposes that the best
way to lead is to show high concern for
results (task) and high concern for the
Consider the various roles and where they
are positioned on the grid.
ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR MHR 405 CHAPTER 10 AMIR ALI GOLBAZI 1 The Contingency Leadership Perspective
This is the third perspective on leadership. This theory BehavvorallPerspecctve ofLeeadership::
A perspeectve that proposessthat efecctve eaaders behavve n certanin
suggests that effective leadership depends upon the desirablewaays..
degree of ﬁt between the leader’s style and various
factors in the particular situation. These theories are A style of leadership in which the leader spells out duties and
known as “IF THEN”. Task-oriented speciﬁc tasks, tells people what to do and how to do it,
leadership style ensures employees follow rules, and encourages employees to
reach peak performance.
There are three contingency theories: Path Goal,
Fielder’s, and Substitutes theory. Employee, A style of leadership in which the leader shows trust and
people-oriented, respect, engages in two-way communication, listens,
or democratic encourages, gives recognition, and provides socio-emotional
PATH-GOAL CONTINGENCY THEORY leadership style Support
This is the most widely accept contingency theory. The
An employee-centred leadership style in which the manager
basic role of the leader is the clear the follower’s path Laissez-faire style permits his or her employees to function within prescribed
the goal. In addition leaders should change their style to (uninvolved)
ﬁt the organization and the follower’s characteristics. leadership style limits.
The leader should the use the most appropriate
A leadership style in which the manager exhibits both a task
behavior style as indicated in the path goal theory Balanced leadership
diagram above. style and people orientation.