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Chapter 3 MHR.pdf

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Human Resources
MHR 405

Organizational Behavior - MHR 405 Chapter 3 Amir Ali Golbazi Perception & Personality Social Perception & Why it is Important in the Workplace Perception is how we view the world around us, it adds meaning to the senses we experience throughout our lives and is used as a primary source of how we understand and ourselves and our surroundings. Social Perception is the interpretation of information about another person, and refers to the processes in which we use information to formulate impressions of others. All management activities rely on perception. Factors that Influence our Perception of Others There are three major categories of influence that affect our perception of others; Characteristics of ourselves as perceivers, characteristics of the target person we are perceiving, and characteristics of the situation in which the interaction takes place. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PERCEIVER Familiarity, attitude, mood, and self concept influence how we perceive others. Familiarity however is not always a good indicator of perceptions as the perceiver might become blind to the negative attributes of the one perceived over time. Attitudes also affect our perceptions, in ways which blind us. Mood also dictates our perceptions as our emotions fluctuate. In positive moods we are more positive in perceiving and vice versa. Cognitive Structure is an individuals way or pattern of thinking. This is where a person relies perceptions on numerous traits may it be physical or characteristic. And finally our Self Concept and how we perceive ourself also affects perception. If we perceive ourself as positive we tend to see the positives in another and vice versa respectively. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TARGET The physical, verbal and nonverbal characteristics of the subject perceived can also influence ones perception. Physical Appearance is an influential factor of perception. Perceivers tend to notice physical appearances first and utmost when interviewing a person. Those whom are above the norm are remembered and those whom are attractive are usually given the upper advantage and higher starting salaries. Verbal Communication is also considered when perceiving others. The tone of voice, accent, and rate of talking all affect perception. Nonverbal Communication is eye contact, facial expressions, body movements, and posture. And finally the Intentions of the target affect our perceptions. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SITUATION The SItuations we are faced with and encounter also affect the way we perceive. For instance our perceptions of a professor would be different if we met them in a classroom versus and restaurant. This is know as the Context of The Situation. In addition the Strength of Situation Cues also effects our perceptions. This is where the Discounting Principle is used in social perception, it is the assumption that an individuals behavior is accounted for by the situation. Influence of Culture on Perception Culture affects our interpretation of the data we gather, as well as the way we add meaning to it. ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR MHR 405 CHAPTER 3 AMIR ALI GOLBAZI 1 Impression Management: Managing the Perceptions of Others The process by which individuals try and control the impression of others on them is called Impression Management. There are several techniques used in the pursuit of such management. One is called Self Enhancing, Name Dropping which is the mentioning the association with and important person in hopes of improving ones own image. Also individuals could manage their Appearance. Another form of impression management is Other Enhancing, which is focusing on the individual whose impression is to be managed. One way to do this is Flattery which is to give compliments for to win someones approval. In addition Granting Favors & Agreeing is also used. IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT & THE EMPLOYMENT INTERVIEW It must be noted that not all impression management tactics are beneficial to the user. Success is mostly dependent on whether behaviors exhibited in an interview are “Self Focused” or Other-Focused”. Self Focused refers to the idea that one engages in behaviors to promote ones self. While Other-Focused refers to the notion that one engages in behaviors that enhance the interview. The following are some interview tips: Barriers to Social Perception Barriers to Social Perception There are six barriers to social perception; selective perception, stereotyping, first impression error, halo effect, projection, and self fulfilling prophecy. SELECTIVE PERCEPTION This is the tendency to become selective of information and thus accept ones that supports our personal viewpoints thus making us disregard information which questions and threatens our viewpoints. STEREOTYPING This is a generalization about a group of people. FIRST IMPRESSION ERROR It is said that an interviewer takes roughly 4 - 5 minutes to make a deacons upon accepting an individual during an interview. This is somewhat of an example of the firs impression error and occurs when one witnesses a behavior of another person and forms insights based on that behavior during the continued interaction. HALO EFFECT The halo effect is simply basing the perceptions of a person based on one of their prominent characteristics. For example a manager who values donations to charity sees that one of his employees does not donate and thus assume that this person is not giving. PROJECTION Also known as the False Consensus Effect, which is the inaccurate perception of others due to the overestimation of the number of people whom we believe share the same values, beliefs and behaviors. SELF FULFILLING PROPHECIES This is where a situation in which our expectations about people affect our interaction with them in such a way that our expectations are fulfilled. ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR MHR 405 CHAPTER 3 AMIR ALI GOLBAZI 2 Attribution in Organizations The Attribution Theory explains how individuals pinpoint the cause of their own behavior and that of others. For example when someone is late for work we believe it to be because of something they did or something out of their control. INTERNAL & EXTERNAL ATTRIBUTES Attributions can be made to an internal source of responsibility (Something within the individuals control) or external source (something outside the individuals control). For instance if you studied and did well on a test you would attribute your success to your effort, then you are making an Internal Attribution. However if you direct you results due to the fact that it was an easy test or you were lucky then it is a External Attribution. ATTRIBUTIONAL BIASES The attribution process may be affected by two main errors; Fundamental Attribution Error and the Self-Serving Bias. The tendency to make attributions to internal causes when focusing on someone else’s behavior is known as the Fundamental
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