ITM 100 Lecture Notes - Lecture 13: Free Moral Agents, Categorical Imperative, Risk Aversion

352 views7 pages

For unlimited access to Class Notes, a Class+ subscription is required.

1
ITM100 lecture 13
Ethical and Social Issues n Information systems
Ethics
Principles of right and wrong that individuals, acting as free moral agents,
use to make decisions to guide their behaviours
o Principals of right and wrong
IT/IS has the potential to raise new ethical issues
Distinguished from legality
Examples:
o
o Volkswagen
o Wells Fargo
Ethical Analysis
Five-step process for ethical analysis:
1. Identify and clearly describe the facts.
2. Define the conflict or dilemma and identify the higher-order
values involved.
3. Identify the stakeholders.
4. Identify the options that you can reasonably take.
5. Identify the potential consequences of your options.
Candidate Ethical Principles
Golden Rule
o Do unto others as you would have them do unto you
Immanuel Kant’s Categorical Imperative
o If an action is not right for everyone to take, it is not right for anyone
If all can't do it, no one should
Descartes’ Rule of Change
o If an action cannot be taken repeatedly, it is not right to take at all
If can't be done multiple done, then it's never right
Utilitarian Principle
o Take the action that achieves the higher or greater value
Risk Aversion Principle
o Take the action that produces the least harm or potential cost
Ethical "NoFreeLunch" Rule
o Assume that virtually all tangible and intangible objects are owned by
someone unless there is a specific declaration otherwise
Expect to compensate other for their effort, and stuff
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-2 of the document.
Unlock all 7 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
2
Technology Trends that Raise Ethical Issues
Computing power doubles every 18 months
o Critical operations are done using computer systems
Data storage costs rapidly decline
o Detailed databases on individuals are easily maintained
Data analysis advances
o Develop detailed profiles of individual behaviour
Networking advances
o Access personal data remotely
Mobile device growth impact
o Tracking individual cell phones without user consent
Information Rights: Privacy and Freedom in the Internet Age
Claim of individuals to be left alone, free from surveillance or interference
from other individuals, organizations, or state; claim to be able to control
information about yourself
o Privacy: the right to be left alone!
Technical Challenges to Privacy
The United States allows businesses to gather transaction information and
use this for other marketing purposes.
Cookies
o Identify browser and track visits to site
o Super cookies (Flash cookies)
o
Web beacons (web bugs)
o Tiny graphics embedded in e-mails and web pages
o Monitor who is reading e-mail message or visiting site
Spyware
o Surreptitiously installed on user’s computer
o May transmit user’s keystrokes or display unwanted ads
Google services and behavioural targeting
The Dark Side of Big Data and Analytics
Profiling
o Combining data from multiple sources to create dossiers of detailed
information on individuals
Nonobvious relationship awareness (NORA)
o Combining data from multiple sources to find obscure hidden
connections that might help identify criminals or terrorists
Piecing together information from multiple sources to identify 1
person/activity
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-2 of the document.
Unlock all 7 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get access

Grade+
$10 USD/m
Billed $120 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
40 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class
Class+
$8 USD/m
Billed $96 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
30 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class