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POL 128 Lecture Notes - Market Failure, North American Free Trade Agreement, Point Source Pollution

Politics and Public Administration
Course Code
POL 128
Joseph Zboralski

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POL203 - Lecture 1
politics - allocation of rescores who gets what when and how
environment - all the components characteristics and conditions in the natural world that
influence organisms
power - ability to get people to do what you want
prisms through which we view environmentalism issues. depending on our perspective we act
- discourse --> how people talk about the environment
- institution --> how institutes of society value the environment for example environment Canada
and their regulations and laws, and how many employees have
- philosophies - --> how people articulate the environment
- ideology --> set of beliefs of how the world and is often normative and questions and proposes
change in the structure.
Environmental politics characterized by: complexity due to nature of the problem : the tragedy of
the commons
environmental problems are complex - because of rational actors, uncertainty, imperfect
response. action is far from perfect. it is not about optimal solution.
diversity of interests at play: it is clear that people bear more problems than others when it
comes to the impact of the environment.
distribution of costs and benefits: occurs at different stages and scales.
all of this causes problems with environmental politics.
Environmental politics characterized by
imperfect math to existing institution - legacies , people didn't think of the environment in
different ways back in the day because it was not thought of as importance then
- problems of scale - not neatly matched to scale of our institutions example great lakes

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Ecocentrism - we protect the environment because it has value in the end
--> rights, moral and ethical
Deep ecology
- All forms of life have equal value, have a moral and ethical obligation
- They don't have right to expand at expense of others
- Economic development not valued
- Rejects traditional forms of social organizations states and markets
- Nature has inherently valuable - it has a moral and ethical in itself
- everyone is equal and can make decision -- no power
Anthropocentrism - we protect the environment because
Sustainable Development
"to meet needs of present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet
their own needs"
- Economic development is okay as long as it within limit
- accepts current forms of social organization with some reforms, especially greater participation
and international cooperation
- nature as instrumentally valuable - we want to preserve environment but there are benefits
Environmental Movement
"broad networks of people and organizations engaged in collective action in pursuit of
environmental benefits"
- companies --> products and business processes
- avid recycler
- not engaged in direct political competition
- does not align with traditional economic cleavages
Waves of Environmentalism
1st wave - 19th century conservation and protection of certain natural areas

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2nd wave - environmental movement 1960's we begin to see social movement and radical
elements in terms of environment. example(overturning society and challenging) moderate
change as well. diversifies in 1960's and begins to part of common culture. laws, rules and
regulations begin and people advocating for the protection of environment.
3rd wave - late 80's and 90's and is a reaction to what occurred. development and economic
growth was stopped and there was a reaction by businesses in terms of regulations that
affected them negatively. As well as the government. values became more integrated into
will continue to evolve
Why did Environmentalism Develop?
- Ronald ingelharts post Materialist thesis
- fundamental values of society began to change
- Maslow's hierarchy of human needs
- shifts values since WW2
- people began considering other aspects not just economics like equality
--> from materialist to post materialist
Challenges to theory - if true what should we expect in developing countries
Two worlds of Environmentalism:
Environmentalism of Affluence - institutionalization of environmentalism and environmental
Environmentalism of Poverty - land movements in India, China, post-materialist
Transnational Environmental Movements
Trans-boundary nature problems:
- great lakes
- climate change
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