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SOC 470 Lecture Notes - Toronto Purchase, Northern Ontario, Industrial Revolution

Course Code
SOC 470
Cheryl Dyson

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Components of a city: population, density, and government
- Europeans originally had a good relationship with the Aboriginals
- The Humber River was a shortcut to get up north, so already
Toronto becomes key because of its location, allows access to
Northern Ontario where there are a lot of furs and mining
resources, and later on Toronto is also key because of access to
out west
- Knowledge from the first nations people about how to move
around where the furs are, are seen as very valuable to the
- The French bring Catholic missionaries and other things that
contribute to changing the way of life of the Aboriginals – sets in
relations of power
- There are tensions between the French and the Hurons and
Iroquios and they start having wars
- Europeans also bring with them diseases that the Aboriginals
become exposed to and lots of people die
- One group of Aboriginals end up dominating the group, the
Mississauga’s, who are able to win out
- The French come first, just to take the furs back not to settle but
to take from Canada and take back to Europe in the same way
that Europeans would have taken sugar and other products back
to Europe
- The French start to think about how they’re going to establish
the fur trade but what happens is the British come in
- The tension between Britain and the French plays out in early
Canada and ultimately the French end up going to Quebec with
most of Ontario overthrown with British presence
- What ends up becoming Toronto is closely linked to all of these
wars and tensions that happens every where else
- The British move towards permanent settlement in ‘Toronto’
- They decide on Toronto because of the American Revolution
because all of the Americans that side with the British come up
to Canada, and the anti-British becomes the United States
- The area known as Toronto becomes associated with a very
strong British tension that continues with the Americans south of
the border
- This is the first thing that contributes to British population, they
are able to get support and gain population from Americans
- The second thing is the TORONTO PURCHASE in 1787
- The British purchased 14 kilometers of land from the
Mississauga’s, so the Toronto Purchase involves the purchase of
land from the Mississauga’s by the British, this land runs from
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Etobicoke to Scarborough
- All the early settlement in Toronto is along the water because it
is easy to get in and out, rivers seen as key transportation routes
- The Mississauga’s are only given a fraction of what the land is
worth, and by taking away access to the waterways, the
Aboriginals cannot do hunting and fishing as they were
traditionally doing within this area
- By this point we have a strong British presence in Ontario and
Toronto in particular, but the question remains why not go to
Kingston or another popular town
- The first Lieutenant Governor of Canada sees some significance
in Toronto
- Lieutenant Governor John Graves, establishes the town of York in
- Toronto is originally called York
- We get the first sort of move towards getting some of the things
that are important towards urbanization and creating a city – of
course a town is less significant than a city
- Early immigration is related to these wars and conflicts
happening somewhere else that makes people want to leave
where they live and come to Toronto – especially during the war
of 1812
- The American’s start attacking what they see as a British
presence in Canada
- The most significant change is after the war, there are a lot more
European immigrants that decide to settle here, and these
immigrants are other Brits, and the Irish – not necessarily
military people, farmers
- Europe starts the industrial revolution after the war, which
moves people out of rural existence into working for other people
in factories – this happens in Europe in the early 1800’s
industrialization in Canada and Toronto happens a lot later – so
people who don’t like this in Europe decide to come over to
Canada to see what their chances are – so we get different
classes of British people coming over willing to do agriculture
and different trades
- The Ireland there has always been tension between the
Protestants and Catholics – the Catholics there are a religious
minority – this is still going on today – so a lot of Catholic Irish
wanted to leave Ireland and come to Toronto
- Toronto is all about what’s going on in other places
- As a result of the end of the war of 1812 is we get more diversity
- Small black and Jewish population starting to emerge
- Who is going to be the controlling force?
- Toronto becomes a hub for agriculture, because of St.Lawrence
market that becomes a large part of the town or York’s role in
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