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ARCH 100 - January 31, 2011.docx

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ARCH 100
Ross Jamieson

ARCH 100 – January 31, 2011 Holocene Transitions - Worldwied changes after 10,000 BP o Climate o Complex hunter-gatherers and foragers o Sea levels rose 130-150 metres o Flooding cut off Americas, Britain, Australia, etc o Drowned coastlines o Magdalenian Europe Mesolithic Technology - Transition to Mesolithic/ Early Holocene Technology - Sleds, canoes, groundstone tools Complex Hunter-Gatherers - Abundant, predictable, storable resources - Anadromouse fish, shellfish, nuts, seeds - Systems of resource procurement and storage - Subsistence strategy Control over Surplus - Unequal distribution - Kin, lineage, clain, higher social ranks & privileges, individual or kin group - specialized craft production, controlled by elite Competitive Feasting - Differential wealth distribution - Prestige, competitive feasting - Intensification of exchange - Warfare Mesolithic Europe - 10,000 to 5,000 BP - End of age ice to introduction to farming - Decisuous (oak, hazel, elm) forests to replace tundra - Reindeer, hourse replaced by red deer, roe deer, elk Intensified Resource Use - Birds, fish, shellfish, game - Nets, fishhooks, spears, dugout canoes, baskets - Acorns, processed Storage - Preservation, seasonal - Smoking, pits, containers - Dewllings Ertebølle Culture - Intense coastal occupations - Year-round occupation - Vedbaek, Denmark Fishing - Harpoons, antler, bone tools - Hunting sea mammals, fowl - Special purpose sites Cemeteries - Increased cultural complexity - Grave goods - 4000 BC, Vedbaek (*BC not BP) - Gender and age differences in grave goods Nature of Agricultre - Most important Holcene development - Neolithic (New Stone Age) - Total realignment of tasks in society Lineage Ownership - Farmland, livestock as property of lineages - Corporate ownership of resources - Stability, predictability - Conflict resolution Define Domestication - “human induced morphological change in plants and animals that renders the species dependent on humans for reproduction and survival” Process of Domestication - About 15 major domesticated plants in the world, even less diversity of domestic animals - No new economically significant domesticates since Neolithic - Narrowed resource diversity causes erosion of genetic resources, disease susceptibility Storage - Stored food surpluses implies sedentism of people - Granaries, pits, other archaeologically visible remains - Craft and religious specialization - Increased social complexity Domestication - Morphological and genetic changes - Altered reproduction patterns - Propagation dependent on humans - Feral, escaped cultivars Plant Domestication - Cereals and beans - Southwest Asia: wheats and barley - Far East: rice and millet - Africa: millet and sorghum - Americas: maize and beans Sunflower - Also known as “apical dominance” - Harvesting, selection pressure toward fewer and larger seedheads - Many domestic plants cannot self-propagate - These are biological features archaeologists can look for Animal Domestication - Control of reproductive success - Result in m
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