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4_3 Modern nonhuman Primates_Lecture Script.pdf

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Simon Fraser University
ARCH 131
Dennis Sandgathe

UNIT 4PRIMATES 43 The Modern NonHuman Primates Slide 1 Title slide Slide 2 In this section we are going to review the range of living primates in the world You will be introduced to the major types of primates including the part of the world they inhabit and what it is that distinguishes them from other primates Some of these you will likely be familiar with but others may be new to you Well start by examining primate taxonomy Slide 3 The Order Primates includes 250 species that can initially be divided up into 2 suborders 1 Prosimii the prosimians and2 Anthropoidea the Anthropoids The prosimians include 3 Superfamilies Lemur Lorises and TarsiersThe Anthropoids include all monkeys apes and humansThe Anthropoids are further divided up into 2 Infraorders Platyrrhini which includes all New World monkeys that we will examine in more detail below and Catarrhini which includes all Old World monkeys and apesincluding humansThe Infraorder Platyrrhini includes two major families Callitrichidae which includes the very small monkeys Marmosets and Tamarins and Cebidae which includes the all other 30 species of New World monkeysThe Old World Infraorder Catarrhini is more complicated It includes the family Cercopithecidae which includes all Old World monkeys Cercopithecidae includes 2 Subfamilies Cercopithecines which includes a large number of African monkey species and Colobines which includes a number of African and Asian monkey speciesCatarrhini also includes a Superfamily Hominoids which includes all apes and humansThe Superfamily Hominoids includes 2 families Hylobatidae which includes the lesser apes Gibbons and Siamangs in Asia and Hominidae which includes the great apes Gorillas Chimpanzees and Orangutans humans are also members of the family Hominidae but are put into their own Tribe called Hominini that distinguishes them from the great apes Hominini is where the term Hominin comes from that is commonly used to refer to humans and their immediate fossil ancestors Slide 4 If we look at the global distribution of modern nonhuman primates its clear that they almost exclusively inhabit very warm environments especially tropical forest biomes although many have demonstrated the potential to survive in a wider range of environments Now lets examine each group of primates in more detail Slide 5 The prosimians are often referred to as less evolved or lower members of the order primates This is not an accurate way to view evolutionary relationships As with all other primates the prosimians have been evolving for 10s of millions of years and are just as successful in their adaptive niches as are other primate groups
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