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Unit 3: Genetics (Lecture 3)

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ARCH 131
Dennis Sandgathe

Unit 3 Genetics 31 Inheritance and Mendels Principles The mechanisms of inheritance of traits the underlying basic process of geneticsth19 Century Views of Inheritance blending of traitsAn averaging of traits going on blending sometimes occursome components that can be averaging or blendfacial feature Breeding or Artificial SelectionFarmers try to develop the best wheat or try to get cow to produce the best milk ie CattlesCow ancestor species Aurochs been around for 100 thousand yearsadapted to Europe Heckrind a recreated version of the extinct speciesa project in the 1920sstarted to breed all different type of cows Gregor Mendel 18221884Austrian Monkbegan his research in 1850s on Plant Hybridization a thing made by combining two different elementsMendels Pea Plant TraitsCrossing pea plantsChose a smooth pea and cross them with wrinkly peasOffspring were all smooth peasTook a couple of offspring peas and made a second generationThe second generation 75 has smooth peas 25 has wrinkly peas o Each parent is passing on a traitdominant trait gets passed on25 of the time will get the less dominant particleMendels Hypothesis each parent contains both a dominant and recessive particle for the trait in questionThey randomly pass on one or the other to each offspringEach parents contribution has a 5050 chance which particle will be passed on whjich means four possible combinationsSwSwSS or Sw or wS or ww Today we refer to the particles for each trait as alleles An allele is an alternate form of a specific geneHomozygous dominant having 2 of the dominant form of an allele SSHeterozygous having 1 dominant and 1 recessive form SwHomozygous recessive having 2 of the recessive form of an allele ww Mendel continued his experiments SS Sw Sw ww1 Generation 3 SwwwSw Sw ww ww2 Gneration 3 SwSSSS SS Sw Sw Monohybrid vs Dihybrid Crosses Monohybrid crossing 2 plants that differ in only one characteristic Dihybrid crosses where the parent plants differed in 2 different characteristics Mendels Principles IMPORTANT 1 The Principle of Segregation includes two parts
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