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Biomedical Physio & Kines
BPK 110
Peggy Keall

Kin 110 Chapter 5 Reading Lipids  Triglycerides: fats we associate with fried foods, cream cheese, salad dressing, ect. Are one type of a larger group of compounds called lipids.  Cholesterol: makes a small contribution to the total amount in your body What are lipids?  Lipids: applies to a broad range of organic molecules that dissolve easily in organic solvents such as alcohol, but less soluble in water  Hydrophobic lipids: averse to water, water-fearing  Lipophilic: soluble in fat, fat-loving  Hydrophilic: water-soluble, attracted to water  Lipophoblic: fat fearing  Main classes of lipids: triglycerides, phospholipids, and sterols o Triglycerides: largest category of lipids  Fat cells store them in adipose tissue  Fats and oils o Phospholipids: 2 percent of dietary lipids  Found in plant and animal origin  Soluble in both fat and water  Crucial roles in cell membranes and blood and body fluids o Sterols: includes cholesterol  Hydrocarbons with several rings in their structure Fatty Acids: Fatty acids are key building blocks:  Fatty acids: determine the characteristics of fat, whether it is solid or liquid at room temperature. o Not joined to a tyglercide are called “free” fatty acids o Chains of carbon atoms with organic acid group (-COOH) at one end and methyl group (-CH )3at the other  Chain length: the number of carbons that a fatty acid contains. 4-24 carbons, most have an even number o the shorter the chain length, the more liquid the fatty acid, more water soluble as well  Saturation: o Each carbon atom as four bonds, o Saturated fatty acids: a fatty acid completely filled by hydrogen with all carbons in the chain linked by single bonds. (H-C-C-C-H) [solid at room temperature] o Unsaturated fatty acid: if carbons are connected by a double bond (C=C), there are few bonds to hold hydrogen. less saturated with hydrogen o Monounsaturated fatty acid: carbon chain contains one double bond o Polyunsaturated fatty acid: carbon chain contains two or more double bonds [thin liquid at room temperature]  Geometric and Positional Isomers o CIS fatty acids: hydrogens next to double bonds are on the same side of the carbon chain. CIS is bent. o Trans fatty acids: most commonly found in hydrogenated fats, such as those in stick margarine, and deep fat fried food. Hydrogens surrounding a double bond are on opposite sides of the carbon chain, straightens the chain and fatty acid becomes more solid o Hydrogenation: chemical reaction where hydrogen atoms are added to carbon- carbon double bonds, converting them to single bonds. Reduces number of bonds, making them more saturated o Conjugated linoleic acid: polyunsaturated fatty acid in which the position of the double bonds has moved, so a single bond alternates with two double bonds  Omega-3, omega-6, and omega-9 fatty acids o Omega-9 fatty acid: polyunsaturated acid where the first double bond starting from (CH 3 end of the molecule lies between the ninths and tenth carbon atoms o Omega-6 fatty acid: first double bond starting from (CH ) e3d of the molecule lies between the 6 and 7 carbon atoms o Omega-3 fatty acid: first double bond starting from (CH ) l3es between 3 rdand 4 atoms o ALL these acids can be burned for energy  Nonessential and essential fatty acids: o Elongation: addition of carbon atoms to fatty acids to lengthen them into new fatty acids  builds storage and structural fats o Desaturation: insertion of double bonds into fatty acids to change them into a new fatty acid (omega-9: remove H from carbons 9 and 10 and create a double bond at C9) o Essential fatty acids: fatty acids the body needs but cannot synthesize, must be obtained from food. i.e. cannot manufacture omega-6 or 3 o Nonessential fatty acids: your body can make them when they are needed. Not necessary to consume them in the diet.  Building Eicosanoids, Omega-3, and Omega-6 Acids o Eicosanoids: class of hormone-like substance formed in the body from long- chain fatty acids (regulators, influence on promoting inflammatory processes, promoting blood clotting) o Omega-6 Fatty Acid:  Linoleic acid – 18 carbon essential acid with two double bonds is the many omega-6 fatty acid  Bodies convert to 20:4 with elongation and desaturation o Omega-3 Fatty Acid:  Alpha-linolenic Acid: 18 carbon with 3 double bonds. (18:3)  Can be elongated and desaturation to EPA (20:5) or DHA (22:6)  Dilates blood vessels, discourages blood clots, reduces inflammation Triglycerides:  Triglyceride Structure: o Glycerol: thick, smooth liquid often used in the food industry, its an alcohol and the backbone of a glycerol
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