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Chapter 5

Kin 110 - Chapter 5

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Simon Fraser University
Biomedical Physio & Kines
BPK 110
Leah Esplen

KIN 110 – CHAPTER 5 – Lipids Lipids are: - Hydrophobic: Insoluble in water - Lipophobic: Insoluble in fat - Hydrophilic: Soluble in water - Lipophilic: Soluble in fat - Triglycerides, Phospholipids, Sterols Triglycerides - Largest category of lipids - Fats and oils Phospholipids - Hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions - Good emulsifiers Sterols - Cholestrol Fatty Acids - Group of carbon atoms, organic acid group and methyl group - Chain Length: The number of carbons a fatty acid has, 4-24, even numbers o Short = more liquid | Long = more solid - Saturated: All carbon bonds are filled with hydrogen atoms  Chocolate & Meat Fats - Unsaturated: Carbon bonds has one or more double bonds o Monounsaturated: Carbon bonds have one double bond  Olive oil, canola oil, peanut oil, safflower oil, nuts  Oleic acid, palmitoleic acid, linoleic acid o Polyunsaturated: Carbon bonds have two or more dbl bond  Soybean oil, flaxseed oil, corn oil, sunflower oil  Alpha-Linolenic acid - CIS Fatty Acid Shape: 2 hydrogen surrounding a double bond are both on the same side of the carbon chain; bent fatty acid shape (more liquid) - Trans Fatty Acid Shape: 2 hydrogen sits on opposite side of carbon chain; straight shape (more solid) o Conjugated Linoleic Acid: Polyunsaturated fatty acid where single bond alternates with 2 double bonds = - = o Vaccenic Acid, Elaidic Acid - Hydrogenation: Add hydrogen to carbon chains, makes fat more saturated - Omega X Fatty Acid: Any polyunsaturated fat where the first starting double bond is from the X to X+1 location - Elongation: Adding carbon atoms to lengthen fatty acid chain to make new fatty acid - Desaturation: Adding new double bonds to fatty acid - Non-Essential Fatty Acid: Fatty acids your body can produce - Essential Fatty Acid: Fatty acids which only come from food o Linoleic Acid: Essential omega-6 fatty acid (18:2) o Alpha-linolenic Acid: Essential omega-3 fatty acid (18:3) - Eicosanoid: Hormonelike substance from long-chain fatty acids Triglycerides - Glycerol: Alcohol of 3 carbon atoms, backbone of mono, di and tri- glycerides - Ester: Combination of organic acid and an alcohol - Esterfication: Condensation reation, organic acid combines with alcohol with the loss of water - Monoglyceride: Glycerol + 1 fatty acid - Diglyceride: Glyceral + 2 fatty acid - Adipocyte: Fat cells - Adipose Tissue: Body fat tissue - Visceral Fat: Fat that cushion body organs - Subcataneous Fat: Fat under the skin - Lanugo: Condition where soft, downy hair grows in response to fat deficiency - Hydrolysis: Splitting of a fatty acid chain by adding water - Oxidation: Oxygen attaches to unsaturated fatty acids, makes fats rancid - Hydrogenation: Add hydrogen to carbon chains
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