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Lecture

Kin140_Chapter 11 & 12 Drugs, Alchol and Tobacco.docx

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Department
Biomedical Physio & Kines
Course Code
BPK 140
Professor
Diana Bedoya

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Description
Chapter 11 & 12 Drugs, Alcohol & Tobacco Understanding Drugs and Their Effects Drug-any substance taken to change the way you feel and function Psychotropic drug-a drug that exerts its effect on the mind/brain Drug abuse-excessive drug use that is inconsistent with accepted medical practice Routes of Drug Administration Oral ingestion-swallowing a tablet, capsule, or liquid Inhalation-a route of administration in which drugs enters the body through the lungs Intravenous injection-a method of administration that gets a concentrated form of a drug into the bloodstream immediately Intramuscular injection-a slower consistent method of administering drugs with a hypodermic needle into the muscular tissue Subcutaneous injection-a method of administering drugs into the fatty layer beneath the skin Dependence A person is considered dependent if they meet three of the following criteria: • Tolerance-larger and larger doses are required to achieve intoxication or another desired affect • Withdrawal-the development of symptoms that cause significant psychological and physical distress when an individual reduces or stops drug use • Loss of control • A persistent desire to reduce use • Compulsive use • Reducing the importance of other activities in favour of the drug • Continued use despite perceived consequences Characteristics of those who are more likely to become drug dependant • Have depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, and schizophrenia • Have easy access to drugs • Have low self-esteem, or problems with relationships • Live a stressful lifestyle, economic or emotional • Live in a culture where there is a high social acceptance of drug use Psychotropic Drugs (mind effecting drugs) Caffeine Most commonly used psychotropic drug in world Stimulant (stimulates central nervous system) High doses associated with dependency, anxiety, insomnia, rapid breath, upset stomach/bowels, dizziness Health Canada recommends <400 mg/day Crosses the placenta, potentially increasing risk of birth defects May increase risk of bladder cancer in men Amphetamines Stimulants (stimulates central nervous system) • Dopamine, adrenaline release Methamphetamine (crystal meth) • Snorted, swallowed or injected • Acutely associated with: wakefulness, decreased appetite, rapid heart rate • Chronic use promotes: reduced motor skills, impaired verbal learning, extreme weight loss, ‘meth mouth’, anxiety, confusion, mood changes, paranoid psychosis • High risk of dependency, withdrawal -very high relapse rate Cannabis: Most widely used Controlled Drug Marijuana Cocaine Death is typically due to a cardiovascular event E.g. heart failure, heart attack Club Drugs (psychoactive drugs) Ecstasy aka MDMA (pure ecstasy, ‘molly’) Stimulant; acutely increases serotonin release • Mood elevator • ‘coming down’ associated with serotonin imbalances, promoting symptoms of depression Chronic use promotes lower levels of serotonin Risks similar to coke, amphetamines • Confusion, depression, sleep problems, drug cravings • Affects short term memory • Death from use often associated with dehydration and heat exhaustion, especially if user over-exercises (e.g. dancing) GHB, Rohypnol aka “roofies” Depressants *can be used as date rape drugs GHB • Effects can be similar to ecstasy
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