PROGRESSION OF TOPICS
- When stressing the cardiovascular system, you have to do it by moving—contracting large skeletal
muscles that signal the body that they need more oxygen and fuel. Therefore, all exercise begins with
- Resistance training is often relegated to a poor second behind cardiovascular conditioning, but both
are crucial to your health and poor musculoskeletal development will put people into a nursing home
early! Even Dr. Kenneth Cooper—an exercise physiologist often referred to as the “father of aerobics”,
argues that anyone over the age of 50 should be spending 50% of their training on muscular
strength/endurance. As you will learn in this text, I think we should combine them all as soon as
possible. The sooner you make something a habit, the better your chances of staying with the
behaviour. If you do no resistance training until you are 40 or 50, it will be hard to start.
- Cardiovascular endurance can prevent coronary heart disease (CHD) and is often considered the most
important component of fitness
- Musculoskeletal health (strength/endurance and flexibility) becomes more and more important to a
- The way any one person trains is not for everyone
- Do not think you have to to stick to an exercise program you develop, exercise plan shouldn’t be statis
- Anterior—front side of the body, also known as ventral.
- Caudal—in quadrupeds, the tail end (see inferior).
- Cranial—above or near the head, also known as superior.
- Distal—farthest end from the trunk or head.
- Dorsal—back of the body, also known as the posterior.
- Inferior—below also, toward the feet.
- Infra—prefix meaning below or under.
- Lateral—away from the midline.
- Medial—toward the midline. - Posterior—back side of the body, also known as the dorsal.
- Proximal—closest part nearest the trunk or head.
- Superior—above or near the head, also known as cranial.
- Supra—prefix meaning above or over.
- Ventral—front side of the body, also known as anterior.
- Bones have attachment points for the muscles tendon, and produces a lever system so we can create
- Another role of bones is to provide protection for vital organs
- Sliding filament theory
- Muscles contract when protein slide across each other
- Achieved by projections (cross-bridges) from one of the protein filaments (myosin) attaching to the
other filaments (actin)
- Once bound to the actin, these projections (myosin heads) rotate, causing the sliding action
- Sliding action causes the muscle produces forcer and shorten
- These bundles of rod-like protein filaments run the length of the muscle fibers (cells). To keep the
muscle’s integrity, muscle fibers are bound together in groups by tough connective tissues. Ever
increasing numbers of these bundles are bound with further layers of connective tissue until the outer
layer (epimysium) forms a sheath around the whole muscle, continuous with the tendon, which
attaches to the bone. When the filaments slide, the muscle pulls on your bones, creating a lever system. MOVEMENT TERMINLOGY
1) Flexion: bending the joint resulting in a decrease of angle; moving the upper arm toward to the front
2) Extension: straightening the joint resulting in an increase of angle; moving the upper arm down to the
3) Adduction: medial movement toward the midline of the body; moving the upper arm down to the side
toward the body
4) Abduction: lateral movement away from the midline of the body; moving the upper arm up to the side
away from the body
5) Transverse adduction: medial movement toward the midline of the body in a horizontal plane; moving
the upper arm toward and across the chest with the back of the arm facing down
6) Transverse flexion: medial movement toward the midline of the body in a horizontal plane; moving the
upper arm toward and across the chest with the elbows facing out to the sides
7) Transverse abduction: lateral movement away from the midline of the body in a horizontal plane;
moving the upper arm away from the chest with the elbows facing down
8) Transverse extension: lateral movement away from the midline of the body in a horizontal plane,
moving the upper arm away from the chest with the elbows out to the sides
9) Medial rotation: rotary movement around the longitudinal axis of the bone toward the center of the
body; turning the upper arm inward
10)Lateral rotation: rotary movement around the longitudinal axis of the bone away from the body;
turning the upper arm outward
1) Flexion: bending the joint resulting in a decrease of angle; bringing forearm toward upper arm
2) Extension: straightening the joint resulting in an increase of angle, bringing forearm away from upper
arm MUSCLE ACTION
o Both sides working together produce flexion at the neck (cervical flexion). The right
sternocleidomastoid produces rotation to the left and lateral flexion to the right. The left
sternocleidomastoid produces rotation to the right and lateral flexion to the left.
Deltoid (anterior, medial (or lateral), and posterior heads)
o Abduction of the arm (all sections). The anterior fibres flex and horizontally adduct arm and the
posterior fibres extend and horizontally abduct the arm. This muscle should not be treated as a
single muscle due to the opposite action of the anterior and posterior fibres.
o Extension and adduction at the shoulder joint.
Pectoralis major (clavicular head and sternal head)
o Flexion, horizontal adduction and adduction at the shoulder joint. When the shoulder is flexed
the pectoralis major will also act as an extensor. Note: When designing basic resistance training
programs, there is no need to distinguish between the clavicular and sternal heads of this muscle.
o Flexion at the elbow joint; also a weak flexor of the shoulder. Many students think the biceps is
the primary and strongest elbow flexor. In fact, the biceps is the strongest elbow flexor when the
forearm is supinated (palm toward the body). However, if the forearm is pronated (palm away
from the body), the brachioradialis is the strongest forearm flexor.
o Flexion of the elbow.
o Flexion of the elbow.
o Extension at the elbow joint.
Trapezius (lower, middle, and upper fibres)
o The trapezius is very important for many shoulder girdle movements but its action on the scapula
is quite complex and not emphasized in this text. Some of the fibres also act on the cervical and
thoracic spine. Rhomboid (major and minor)
o Adduction and downward rotation of the scapula. As the movement of the scapula is quite
complex it is not required that you know the specific actions of the rhomboids for this text. If you
are performing resistance training work that targets the latissimus dorsi you would also be
working the rhomboids.
Abdominals (rectus abdominus)
o Trunk flexion
Abdominals (internal and external obliques)
o Both work together to help produce trunk flexion. The left external oblique and right internal
oblique would cause rotation to the right. Lateral flexion (sideways bending) to the right is
caused by both the right external and internal oblique contracting.
o Extension of the spine. The erector spinae is a series of deep-lying muscles that attach along the
posterior (back) of the spine.
o Flexion of the hip and trunk. The iliopsoas is actually two muscles (iliacus and psoas) that start out
separately and then join together to a common insertion. It is a deep-lying muscle with fibres
running from the lumbar vertebrae and iliac bone to the front of the thigh (femur). As the psoas
attaches to the spine it is a very important muscle in relation to back pain and I will discuss this
later in the text.
o Extension at the hip.
Quadriceps (rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, lateralis & medialis)
o Extension at the knee (all four muscles). You should understand the different action of the rectus
femoris as it is the only one of the four quadriceps that crosses the hip joint and hence has the
action flexion at the hip joint in addition to knee extension.
Hamstrings (biceps femoris, semimembranosus, & semitendinosis)
o Flexion at the knee and extension at the hip.
Thigh Adductors (adductor brevis, longus and magnus muscles, gracilis and pectineus)
o Adduction of the thigh (moving it toward the midline). There is no need to remember individual
muscle names; thigh adductors is sufficient.
Thigh Abductors (gluteus minimus and medius, and tensor faciae latae)
o Abduction of the thigh (moving it away from the midline). There is no need to remember the individual muscle names; thigh abductors is sufficient.
o Dorsiflexion of the ankle (toe rotating toward knee). This muscle is not easy to strength train.
ExRx.net suggests reverse calf raises; and you could also dorsiflex the ankle with a strong rubber
band firmly anchored and looped over your foot. Most athletes doing a variety of exercises do
not need to isolate this muscle. However, runners who run on flat ground all the time may
over-develop their calf muscles (soleus and gastrocnemius) and create a muscle imbalance. I
believe most resistance exercises that work isolated muscles are usually only required for
rehabilitation work and to correct muscle imbalances.
o Plantar flexion at the ankle (toe pointing away from knee) and flexion at the knee. The
gastrocnemius is a two-joint muscle (bi-articulate).
o Plantar flexion (toe pointing away from knee) at the ankle. The soleus is a single-joint muscle
(uni-articulate) and does not cross the knee joint.
1) Pronation: internal rotation of the forearm resulting in the palm moving posteriorly, or down
2) Suspination: external rotation of the forearm resulting in the palm moving anteriorly;or up
1) Flexion: bending the joint resulting in a decrease of angle; moving the palm of the hand toward the
front of the forearm
2) Extension: straightening the joint resulting in an increase of angle; moving the back of the hand toward
the back of the forearm
3) Adduction: medial movement toward the midline of the body; moving the little finger side of the hand
toward the medial side of the forearm
4) Abduction: lateral movement away from the midline of the body; moving the thumb side of the hand
toward the lateral side of the forearm
MUSCLE AND JOINT MOVEMENT CLASSIFICATION
Agonist—A muscle that causes the motion of the exercise. So the biceps is an agonist in the biceps
Antagonist—A muscle that can move the joint opposite to the movement produced by the agonist.
The triceps is the antagonist for the biceps curl. Target—The primary muscle intended for exercise. Note that some websites and textbooks use the
term prime mover(s). These are really interchangeable, but ExRx.net lists one target muscle (or
sometimes a target area), whereas other experts in the field may list several prime movers. For
example, ExRx.net lists the pectoralis major as the target muscle for the bench press, with the
anterior deltoid and triceps listed as synergists (see next definition below). Others would list all
three muscles as prime movers. I am happy with either description of the muscles targeted by the
Synergist—A muscle that assists another muscle to accomplish a movement.
Stabilizer—A muscle that contracts with no significant movement to maintain a posture or fixate a
joint. When doing the back squat, the muscles of the trunk (all of them) contract to stabilize the
spine. If you think exercises like deadlifts and squats are not core exercises, think again.
Dynamic stabilizer—A bi-articulate muscle that simultaneously shortens at the target joint and
lengthens at the adjacent joint with no appreciable difference in length. Dynamic stabilization
occurs during many compound movements. For example, the ha