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BPK 143 (45)
Lecture

kin 143 chapter 3

13 Pages
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Department
Biomedical Physio & Kines
Course Code
BPK 143
Professor
Tony Leyland

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Description
Chapter 3 PROGRESSION OF TOPICS - When stressing the cardiovascular system, you have to do it by moving—contracting large skeletal muscles that signal the body that they need more oxygen and fuel. Therefore, all exercise begins with muscle action. - Resistance training is often relegated to a poor second behind cardiovascular conditioning, but both are crucial to your health and poor musculoskeletal development will put people into a nursing home early! Even Dr. Kenneth Cooper—an exercise physiologist often referred to as the “father of aerobics”, argues that anyone over the age of 50 should be spending 50% of their training on muscular strength/endurance. As you will learn in this text, I think we should combine them all as soon as possible. The sooner you make something a habit, the better your chances of staying with the behaviour. If you do no resistance training until you are 40 or 50, it will be hard to start. - Cardiovascular endurance can prevent coronary heart disease (CHD) and is often considered the most important component of fitness - Musculoskeletal health (strength/endurance and flexibility) becomes more and more important to a healthy lifestyle MUSCULOSKELETAL ANATOMY - The way any one person trains is not for everyone - Do not think you have to to stick to an exercise program you develop, exercise plan shouldn’t be statis ANATOMICAL TERMS - Anterior—front side of the body, also known as ventral. - Caudal—in quadrupeds, the tail end (see inferior). - Cranial—above or near the head, also known as superior. - Distal—farthest end from the trunk or head. - Dorsal—back of the body, also known as the posterior. - Inferior—below also, toward the feet. - Infra—prefix meaning below or under. - Lateral—away from the midline. - Medial—toward the midline. - Posterior—back side of the body, also known as the dorsal. - Proximal—closest part nearest the trunk or head. - Superior—above or near the head, also known as cranial. - Supra—prefix meaning above or over. - Ventral—front side of the body, also known as anterior. SKELETAL SYSTEM - Bones have attachment points for the muscles tendon, and produces a lever system so we can create movement - Another role of bones is to provide protection for vital organs - Sliding filament theory - Muscles contract when protein slide across each other - Achieved by projections (cross-bridges) from one of the protein filaments (myosin) attaching to the other filaments (actin) - Once bound to the actin, these projections (myosin heads) rotate, causing the sliding action - Sliding action causes the muscle produces forcer and shorten - These bundles of rod-like protein filaments run the length of the muscle fibers (cells). To keep the muscle’s integrity, muscle fibers are bound together in groups by tough connective tissues. Ever increasing numbers of these bundles are bound with further layers of connective tissue until the outer layer (epimysium) forms a sheath around the whole muscle, continuous with the tendon, which attaches to the bone. When the filaments slide, the muscle pulls on your bones, creating a lever system. MOVEMENT TERMINLOGY Shoulder (Glenohumeral) 1) Flexion: bending the joint resulting in a decrease of angle; moving the upper arm toward to the front 2) Extension: straightening the joint resulting in an increase of angle; moving the upper arm down to the rear 3) Adduction: medial movement toward the midline of the body; moving the upper arm down to the side toward the body 4) Abduction: lateral movement away from the midline of the body; moving the upper arm up to the side away from the body 5) Transverse adduction: medial movement toward the midline of the body in a horizontal plane; moving the upper arm toward and across the chest with the back of the arm facing down 6) Transverse flexion: medial movement toward the midline of the body in a horizontal plane; moving the upper arm toward and across the chest with the elbows facing out to the sides 7) Transverse abduction: lateral movement away from the midline of the body in a horizontal plane; moving the upper arm away from the chest with the elbows facing down 8) Transverse extension: lateral movement away from the midline of the body in a horizontal plane, moving the upper arm away from the chest with the elbows out to the sides 9) Medial rotation: rotary movement around the longitudinal axis of the bone toward the center of the body; turning the upper arm inward 10)Lateral rotation: rotary movement around the longitudinal axis of the bone away from the body; turning the upper arm outward Elbow 1) Flexion: bending the joint resulting in a decrease of angle; bringing forearm toward upper arm 2) Extension: straightening the joint resulting in an increase of angle, bringing forearm away from upper arm MUSCLE ACTION  Sternocleidomastoid o Both sides working together produce flexion at the neck (cervical flexion). The right sternocleidomastoid produces rotation to the left and lateral flexion to the right. The left sternocleidomastoid produces rotation to the right and lateral flexion to the left.  Deltoid (anterior, medial (or lateral), and posterior heads) o Abduction of the arm (all sections). The anterior fibres flex and horizontally adduct arm and the posterior fibres extend and horizontally abduct the arm. This muscle should not be treated as a single muscle due to the opposite action of the anterior and posterior fibres.  Latissimus dorsi o Extension and adduction at the shoulder joint.  Pectoralis major (clavicular head and sternal head) o Flexion, horizontal adduction and adduction at the shoulder joint. When the shoulder is flexed the pectoralis major will also act as an extensor. Note: When designing basic resistance training programs, there is no need to distinguish between the clavicular and sternal heads of this muscle.  Biceps brachii o Flexion at the elbow joint; also a weak flexor of the shoulder. Many students think the biceps is the primary and strongest elbow flexor. In fact, the biceps is the strongest elbow flexor when the forearm is supinated (palm toward the body). However, if the forearm is pronated (palm away from the body), the brachioradialis is the strongest forearm flexor.  Brachialis o Flexion of the elbow.  Brachioradialis o Flexion of the elbow.  Triceps o Extension at the elbow joint.  Trapezius (lower, middle, and upper fibres) o The trapezius is very important for many shoulder girdle movements but its action on the scapula is quite complex and not emphasized in this text. Some of the fibres also act on the cervical and thoracic spine.  Rhomboid (major and minor) o Adduction and downward rotation of the scapula. As the movement of the scapula is quite complex it is not required that you know the specific actions of the rhomboids for this text. If you are performing resistance training work that targets the latissimus dorsi you would also be working the rhomboids.  Abdominals (rectus abdominus) o Trunk flexion  Abdominals (internal and external obliques) o Both work together to help produce trunk flexion. The left external oblique and right internal oblique would cause rotation to the right. Lateral flexion (sideways bending) to the right is caused by both the right external and internal oblique contracting.  Erector Spinae o Extension of the spine. The erector spinae is a series of deep-lying muscles that attach along the posterior (back) of the spine.  Iliopsoas o Flexion of the hip and trunk. The iliopsoas is actually two muscles (iliacus and psoas) that start out separately and then join together to a common insertion. It is a deep-lying muscle with fibres running from the lumbar vertebrae and iliac bone to the front of the thigh (femur). As the psoas attaches to the spine it is a very important muscle in relation to back pain and I will discuss this later in the text.  Gluteus Maximus o Extension at the hip.  Quadriceps (rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, lateralis & medialis) o Extension at the knee (all four muscles). You should understand the different action of the rectus femoris as it is the only one of the four quadriceps that crosses the hip joint and hence has the action flexion at the hip joint in addition to knee extension.  Hamstrings (biceps femoris, semimembranosus, & semitendinosis) o Flexion at the knee and extension at the hip.  Thigh Adductors (adductor brevis, longus and magnus muscles, gracilis and pectineus) o Adduction of the thigh (moving it toward the midline). There is no need to remember individual muscle names; thigh adductors is sufficient.  Thigh Abductors (gluteus minimus and medius, and tensor faciae latae) o Abduction of the thigh (moving it away from the midline). There is no need to remember the individual muscle names; thigh abductors is sufficient.  Tibialis Anterior o Dorsiflexion of the ankle (toe rotating toward knee). This muscle is not easy to strength train. ExRx.net suggests reverse calf raises; and you could also dorsiflex the ankle with a strong rubber band firmly anchored and looped over your foot. Most athletes doing a variety of exercises do not need to isolate this muscle. However, runners who run on flat ground all the time may over-develop their calf muscles (soleus and gastrocnemius) and create a muscle imbalance. I believe most resistance exercises that work isolated muscles are usually only required for rehabilitation work and to correct muscle imbalances.  Gastrocnemius o Plantar flexion at the ankle (toe pointing away from knee) and flexion at the knee. The gastrocnemius is a two-joint muscle (bi-articulate).  Soleus o Plantar flexion (toe pointing away from knee) at the ankle. The soleus is a single-joint muscle (uni-articulate) and does not cross the knee joint. Forearm 1) Pronation: internal rotation of the forearm resulting in the palm moving posteriorly, or down 2) Suspination: external rotation of the forearm resulting in the palm moving anteriorly;or up Wrist 1) Flexion: bending the joint resulting in a decrease of angle; moving the palm of the hand toward the front of the forearm 2) Extension: straightening the joint resulting in an increase of angle; moving the back of the hand toward the back of the forearm 3) Adduction: medial movement toward the midline of the body; moving the little finger side of the hand toward the medial side of the forearm 4) Abduction: lateral movement away from the midline of the body; moving the thumb side of the hand toward the lateral side of the forearm MUSCLE AND JOINT MOVEMENT CLASSIFICATION  Agonist—A muscle that causes the motion of the exercise. So the biceps is an agonist in the biceps curl.  Antagonist—A muscle that can move the joint opposite to the movement produced by the agonist. The triceps is the antagonist for the biceps curl.  Target—The primary muscle intended for exercise. Note that some websites and textbooks use the term prime mover(s). These are really interchangeable, but ExRx.net lists one target muscle (or sometimes a target area), whereas other experts in the field may list several prime movers. For example, ExRx.net lists the pectoralis major as the target muscle for the bench press, with the anterior deltoid and triceps listed as synergists (see next definition below). Others would list all three muscles as prime movers. I am happy with either description of the muscles targeted by the bench press.  Synergist—A muscle that assists another muscle to accomplish a movement.  Stabilizer—A muscle that contracts with no significant movement to maintain a posture or fixate a joint. When doing the back squat, the muscles of the trunk (all of them) contract to stabilize the spine. If you think exercises like deadlifts and squats are not core exercises, think again.  Dynamic stabilizer—A bi-articulate muscle that simultaneously shortens at the target joint and lengthens at the adjacent joint with no appreciable difference in length. Dynamic stabilization occurs during many compound movements. For example, the ha
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