KIN 325-Unit 5 Study Objectives

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Biomedical Physio & Kines
BPK 325
Josephine Anthony

Unit 5 Objectives 1. Explain the general functions of the nervous system. -central nervous system (CNS): consists of the brain and spinal cord -peripheral nervous system (PNS): consists mainly of nerves that extend from the brain and spinal cord -somatic sensory: -general: widespread, touch, pain, pressure, vibration, temperature and proprioception in skin, body wall, and limbs -proprioception: body sense -special: hearing, equilibrium, vision -visceral sensory: -general: stretch, pain, temperature, chemical change, irritation in viscera, nausea and hunger -special: taste and smell -somatic motor (voluntary motor): -general: motor innervation of all skeletal muscles -visceral motor (involuntary motor): -general: motor innervation of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands; equivalent to autonomic nervous system 2. Describe the structural characteristics of the various parts of a neuron and the functions of each of its parts. -cell body (soma): -structure: spherical, clear, and contains a dark nucleolus near its centre -function: focal point of outgrowth of the neuron process during embryonic development -dendrites: -structure: processes that branch from the cell body -function: receptive sites for receiving signals from other neurons -axons: -structure: cone-shaped segment -function: impulse generators and conductors that transmit nerve impulses away from their cell body 3. Identify the location and discuss the role of neuroglial cells in the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system. -neuroglial cells in the CNS: -astrocytes (star cells): most abundant, cling to neurons or to capillaries -neuron contact allows astrocytes to sense when the neurons are releasing large amounts of glutamate at their synapses -capillary contact allows blood sugar extraction -take up and release ions to control the ionic environment around neurons -involved in synapse formation in developing neural tissue -microglia: smallest and least abundant -elongated cell bodies and cell processes with many projections (thorny bush) -migrate to and engulf invading microorganisms and injured/dead neurons -do NOT originate nervous tissue -derived from blood cells called monocytes -oligondendrocytes: fewer branches than astrocytes -small groups and wrap their cell processes around thicker axons in the CNS -produce insulating coverings called myelin sheaths -neuroaglial cells in the PNS -satellite cells: surround neuron cell bodies within ganglia -schawnn cells: surround all axons in the PNS and form myelin sheathes around many of these axons 4. Explain how neurons are classified according to their function. -sensory neurons (afferent): sensory division of the PNS, transmit impulses toward the CNS from sensory receptors in the PNS -pseudounipolar -central process: branches into the CNS -peripheral process: branches to the receptors -motor neurons (efferent): motor division of the PNS, carry impulses away from the CNS to effector organs (muscles and glands) -multipolar, cell bodies located in the CNS -form junctions with effector cells, stimulating muscles to contract or glands to secrete -interneurons (association): lie between motor and sensor neurons, confined entirely to the CNS -link together in chains that form complex neuronal pathways -multipolar 5. Describe the anatomy of the major parts or regions of the brain and the spinal cord and the function of each of their parts. -brian stem: -cerebellum: -diencephalon: -cerebrum: 6. Distinguish between grey matter and white matter and motor, sensory, and other functional areas of the cerebral cortex. -grey matter: -basal ganglia: (corpus striatum, caudate nucleus, putamen) -globus pallidus -control movements in conjunction with the motor cortex -basal forebrain nuclei: (septum, horizontal and diagonal bands of Broca, basal nucleus of Meynert -perform major role in arousal, learning, memory, and motor control, rich in cholinergic fibers -claustrum: -function unclear -white matter: -commissures: connect the corresponding cortices of the 2 hemispheres -association fibers: connect the cortex of the different parts of the same hemisphere -projection fibers: connect the cortex to more caudal parts of the CNS -motor areas: -primary motor cortex: controls voluntary motor movements -premotor cortex: controls complex motor movements involving sensory feedback; planning of movements -frontal eye field: controls voluntary movements of eyes -Broca’s area: controls speech production -sensory areas: -primary somatosensory cortex: processes sensory input from general somatic senses (touch, pain, pressure, temperature, proprioception) -primary visual cortex: processes sensory information from the retina -primary auditory cortex: processes sensory information from the cochlea -gustatory (taste) cortex: processes taste stimuli from the tongue -vestibular (equilibrium) cortex: processes sensory input from the vestibular apparatus -olfactory (smell) cortex: processes smells -association areas: -somatosensory association cortex: integrates different sensory inputs from somatosensory cortex to understand sensations -visual association area: processes visual info by analyzing color, form, & movement -auditory association area: identifies sound, memories of past sounds -anterior association area (prefrontal cortex): -integrates input from all other association areas to plan and initiate motor responses; performs cognitive functions: thinking, perceiving, and intentionally remembering information -posterior association area: integrates input from somatosensory, visual, and auditory
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