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OB Chapter 7 - Communication.docx

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Department
Business Administration
Course
BUS 272
Professor
Christopher Zatzick
Semester
Winter

Description
Chp 7: Communication The Communication Process Communication - The transfer and understanding of a message between two or more people Process: Sender - chooses message, encodes message, chooses the channel ---> Receiver: decodes message, provides feedback Encoding and Decoding Encoding - Converting a message to symbolic form Decoding - Interpreting a sender's message  Four factors affecting it: skill, attitude, knowledge, socio-cultural system The Message Message - What is communicated The Channel Channel - The medium through which a message travels Reason why people choose one channel over another  Communication Apprehension - Undue tension and anxiety about oral communication, written communication or both (5-20% population)  Channel Richness - The amount of information that can be transmitted during a communication episode (80-95% population) o Ability to handle multiple cues simultaneously, facilitate rapid feedback, be personal o Routine messages through low richness, nonroutine through high richness Feedback Loop Feedback Loop - The final link in the communication process; it puts the message back into the system as a check against misunderstandings The Context  Violations of context that communication usually takes places creates problems o Different situations call for different formalities The Communication Process Communication - The transfer and understanding of a message between two or more people Process: Sender - chooses message, encodes message, chooses the channel ---> Receiver: decodes message, provides feedback Encoding and Decoding Encoding - Converting a message to symbolic form Decoding - Interpreting a sender's message  Four factors affecting it: skill, attitude, knowledge, socio-cultural system The Message Message - What is communicated The Channel Channel - The medium through which a message travels Reason why people choose one channel over another  Communication Apprehension - Undue tension and anxiety about oral communication, written communication or both (5-20% population)  Channel Richness - The amount of information that can be transmitted during a communication episode (80-95% population) o Ability to handle multiple cues simultaneously, facilitate rapid feedback, be personal o Routine messages through low richness, nonroutine through high richness Feedback Loop Feedback Loop - The final link in the communication process; it puts the message back into the system as a check against misunderstandings The Context  Violations of context that communication usually takes places creates problems o Different situations call for different formalities Organizational Communication October-13-11 12:42 PM Barriers to Effective Communication Filtering – A sender’s manipulation of info so that it will be seen more favourable by the receiver - As information is passed up to senior executives, employees must condense and synthesize the information Selective Perception – Receivers selectively see and hear information based on their needs, motivations, experience, background and other personal characteristics Defensiveness – When people feel like they are being threatened, they tend to reduce their ability to achieve a mutual understanding - More defensive : verbally attacking others, making sarcastic remarks and being overly judgemental and questioning other’s motives Information overload – The state of having more information than one can process -this causes people to select out, ignore, pass over or forget information Language – Employees come from diverse backgrounds and therefore have different patterns of speech - Because individuals are widely dispersed geographically – individuals in each locale will use terms and phrases that are unique to their area - For one’s whose first language is not English  more confusion can occur Small-Group Networks Barriers to Effective Communication Communication Networks - Channels by which information flows (formal or informal) Formal Networks - Task-related communications that follow the authority chain Three common formal small-group networks: Organizational Communication October-13-11 12:42 PM Direction of Communication Downward  Approach to assign goals, job instructions, inform employees, identify problems, and offer performance feedback  Explaining reasons behind why a decision is made; employees are then likely to commit to the change Upward  Provide feedback to a higher level in the organization, inform of progress, relay current problems  Allows managers to figure out what needs to be improved  To engage in effective upward communication: Reduce distractions(meet in conference room rather than boss’ office), communicate in headlines, support your headlines, have an agenda...concise Lateral  Short-circuits vertical hierarchy and speed up actions o Can create conflicts when formal channels are breached and employees have taken actions or made decisions without managers consent Small-Group Networks Communication Networks - Channels by which information flows (formal or informal)
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