CRIM 101 Lecture Notes - Security Alarm, Squeegee Man, Guard Dog

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Published on 21 Apr 2013
School
Simon Fraser University
Department
Criminology
Course
CRIM 101
Page:
of 6
THE AFTERMATH OF CRIME
A BRIEF REFRESHER
Precursorscircumstances that lead up to the criminal event.
Transactionswhat happened, where it happened, when it happened, who was involved.
Aftermathhow do victims respond? How do offenders respond if they’re caught,
convicted, and punished? How does the general public react to crime? What are the
actual costs of crime?
ANALYZING THE COSTS OF CRIME
The real costs of crime can be difficult to measure accurately
Direct financial losses (money or property stolen) are easiest to evaluate
How do you place a value on the pain caused by a minor injury, or by the fear of further
victimization?
If somebody moves to different neighbourhood, purchases automobile tracking system or
burglar alarm system after being victimized, should these be included in costs of crime?
*VICTIMS OF VIOLENCE
One of main ways we find out about cost of crime is through victimization surveys
According to the GSS, 25% of all violent incidents resulted in some form of physical
injury
Only about 10% of victims of violence sought medical care for their injuries
ROBBERY
35% of robbery victims reported difficulties in carrying out their main activities (e.g.,
work, school, etc.)
39% said they were affected for period of between two days and a week
16% said their main activities had been disrupted for over two weeks
*HOUSEHOLD VICTIMIZATION
Includes break and enter, theft of household property, automobile theft, etc.
63% of all reported losses were less that $500 per incident
42% were less than $100 after victims received compensation from insurance company
*THEFT OF PERSONAL PROPERTY
Having credit cards, money or jewellery stolen while in shopping malls, commercial
buildings, etc.
42% involved out-of-pocket expenses of less than a hundred dollars
ROUGH ESTIMATES
Annual cost of crime in Canada estimated to be around $57 billion
$46 billion attributed primarily to health issues, lost wages, and insurance settlements
$11 billion spent on operation of the criminal justice system
READING THE FINE PRINT
Figures do not include expenditures on private security, burglar alarm systems, or other
theft prevention devices.
If figures from GSS used (rather than figures from UCR), the total annual cost of pain
and suffering for all types of crime would be over $35 billion (not including direct
economic losses, insurance costs). If this figure was added to estimates provided above,
the actual cost of crime in Canada (including pain and suffering) would be closer to $92
billion a year
Smart customers read the fine print
*EMOTIONAL AND BEHAVIOURAL CONSEQUENCES
GSS reports that overwhelming majority of people in Canada (94%) feel safe from crime
Majority of Canadians (59%) feel their neighbourhood is safer than other neighbourhoods
*REACTIONS TO VIOLENT CRIME
% of violent incidents: 32 angry, 20 upset/confused/frustrated, 18 fearful, 12 shocked/disbelief, 9
more cautious/aware, 9 annoyed, 6 victimized, 5 hurt/disappointment, 26 no reaction, 3 sleeping
problems, 4 depression, 3 sleeping problem, 26 not much at all
VULNERABILITY CONVERSION
Some individuals do become fearful of crime, and may go through process known as
vulnerability conversion
Feel they are more susceptible to the dangers of life than they thought
Being the victim of a serious (especially "random“) crime can cause people to re-
evaluate their notions about the world making sense, or about life being fair
Victims may feel weak and helpless, and even start to blame themselves
Having home broken into is tantamount to invasion of privacy
May suffer additional distress if personal possessions to which they are emotionally
attached are stolen or damaged
AVOIDANCE BEHAVIOURS
Steps people take to distance themselves from situations they perceive to be dangerous
Moving to new neighbourhood, or staying away from downtown core, especially at night
(avoiding potential offenders)
DEFENSIVE BEHAVIOURS
Precautionary measures people take to reduce their risks of being victimized
Getting a guard dog, installing a burglar alarm system in their home-offending their
personal space
OTHER REACTIONS
Many victims of crime react by talking about it with friends and neighbours, family
members and co-workers
Even if they do eventually report to the police, victims often consult first with their
friends and neighbours, family members or co-workers
Suggests that decision about reporting to police is influenced socially, through contact
with significant others
(neighbourhood watch welcoming committee)
THE FEAR OF CRIME
Fear of crime is disproportionate to the actual amount of crime
Fear of crime might be as serious a problem as crime itself
Fear is difficult to define, and just as difficult to measure
THE GENDER DIFFERENCE
95% of men and 93% of women, express general satisfaction with their personal safety
Women are at least twice as likely as men to be fearful if they are on public transit alone
at night, if they are home alone at night, or if they are walking alone after dark
Increased level of fear could be due to fact that women are smaller or weaker than the
average male offender, or they have been socialized into regarding themselves as weak
and vulnerable
In reality, rate of violent victimization is quite similar for men and women, except men
are more likely to be physically assaulted or robbed, whereas women are five times as
likely to be victim of a sexual assault
Both genders are less fearful if they frequently use public transportation or walk alone at
night
*AGE DIFFERENCES
Violent victimization rates lowest for people over age of 65, and highest for those
between ages of 15 and 24
Older people continue to express concerns about their personal safety
Might be caused by tendency to regard themselves as being weaker than the typical
offender, and hence more vulnerable
Media images of older people being preyed upon by younger, stronger people (who are
seemingly ruthless and eager to take advantage of them) may contribute to this fear
*THE URBAN-RURAL DIVIDE
Safe/unsafe
WHY THE DIFFERENCE?
More likely to encounter strangers from different cultural or social backgrounds
More likely to encounter physical incivilities (e.g., broken windows, graffiti, run-down
buildings, etc.)
More likely to encounter social incivilities (e.g., drug and alcohol use in public places,
panhandlers and squeegee kids on street corners, etc.)
GSS reports that rates of victimization are indeed higher in urban areas, especially in
those urban areas with a high number of rental units and a high turnover in population

Document Summary

Precursors circumstances that lead up to the criminal event. Transactions what happened, where it happened, when it happened, who was involved. The real costs of crime can be difficult to measure accurately. Direct financial losses (money or property stolen) are easiest to evaluate. One of main ways we find out about cost of crime is through victimization surveys. According to the gss, 25% of all violent incidents resulted in some form of physical injury. Only about 10% of victims of violence sought medical care for their injuries. 35% of robbery victims reported difficulties in carrying out their main activities (e. g. , work, school, etc. ) 39% said they were affected for period of between two days and a week. 16% said their main activities had been disrupted for over two weeks. Includes break and enter, theft of household property, automobile theft, etc. 63% of all reported losses were less that per incident.