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CRIM 101 (452)

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CRIM 101
Barry Cartwright

CRIMINOLOGY 101-TERM PAPER ASSIGNMENT GENERAL GROUND RULES 1,000-1,2000 words (4-5 typewritten pages, not including cover page and references cited page). Due in lecture in week 12. Worth 20 percent of your grade for the course. Two point per day penalty for late submissions. TERM PAPER TOPIC WE'RE NOT FINISHED YET TERM PAPER TOPIC TWO TERM PAPER TOPIC THREE TERM PAPER STRUCTURE Should have cover page with the name of the course, your name Should have a "references cited" page at the end PARAGRAPHS If the length of a paragraph is more than one typewritten page Aim for around 5-6 paragraphs HOW MANY WORDS IS 1,000-1200 WORDS? Try to adhere as closely as possible We do not usually count pages or words A page longer than required will not normally result in a penalty Half a page shorter than required will not normally result in a penalty REFERENCES CITED PAGE Every paper must have a References Cited section References must be listed Titles of books and journals must be italicized or underlined Do not italicize or underline REFERENCES CITED: apa IN-TEXT REFERENCING According to Fishbein (2010, p. 40), the term "criminality" includes victimless acts. The age-old nature versus nurture debate has pitted hereditarians on one side against environmentalists on the other (Fishbein, 2010, p. 37). RESEARCHING CRIMINAL EVENTS SEVERAL APPROACHES - Direct observation in natural settings - Experimental observations - Police report - Victimization surveys - Self-report surveys THE UCR AND THE GSS Official crime rates - Official crime rates usually based on Uniform Crime Report (UCR) Criminologists also look - Criminologists also look at the General Social Survey (GSS) DIRECT OBSERVATION DIRECT OBSERVATION cont. Not necessarily the most efficient manner - Not necessarily the most efficient manner to research crime Criminal events occur - Criminal events occur with relative infrequency Criminals spend a lot of their time - Criminals spend a lot of their time doing same things as non-criminals THE SECRET LIVES OF CRIMINALS Criminal behaviour - Criminal behaviour tends to be secretive in nature Criminals go out of their way - Criminals go out of their way to avoid observation or detection SOME OTHER DILEMMAS If researchers succeed in observing criminal behaviour - If researchers succeed in observing criminal behaviour, do they quietly record their observations, or do they report behaviour to the police? Researchers may end up being victims themselves - Researchers may end up being victims themselves if they hang out in high crime areas What happens if they’re seen by the offenders - What happens if they’re seen by the offenders to be observing their criminal behaviour? EXPERIMENTING ON HUMANS Issues of “informed consent” - Issues of “informed consent” (if you tell the subjects what you’re going to do, they may refuse, or alter their behaviour) If you encourage subjects to break the law - If you encourage subjects to break the law, you may be breaking the law yourself EXPERIMENTS IN ELECTRICITY SOME PROBLEMS WITH THE UCR Many incidents of crime go undetected, or unreported, and consequently do not make it into the UCR Some incidents that are reported may not show up in the UCR because police conclude they are unfounded THE DARK FIGURE OF RECORDING, ACT II, Scene 33 Wide variations in reporting practices across the country Professionalism and degree of organization of particular police department may be a factor OTHER COMPLICATING FACTORS THE CRIME FUNNEL Describes attrition rate as reported crimes make their way through the criminal justice system For most crimes known to the police, nobody gets arrested. Arrest usually does not lead to a trial or a guilty plea THE CRIME FUNNEL cont. 1. Actual level of crime 2. Detected crime 3. Reported crime 4. Arrests 5. Convictions 6. Non-custodial 7. Custodial THE CENTRAL CITY PHENOMENON Crime rates reported in city centres may not accurately reflect the number of criminally minded people who actually live there Census Metropolitan Areas or CMAs often have a number of suburbs that are contiguous to – or connected with – the city itself People from suburbs travel to city centre in search of excitement, entertainment, or the opportunity to commit crimes ETHNICITY AND CRIME Canada does not collect statistics on the relationship (if any) between race and crime To the extent that we have reliable information, it is usually collected by correctional institutions, rather than by the police or the courts FEDERAL INCARCERATION RATES PER 100,000 Aboriginals – 185 Blacks – 146 Whites – 42 Asians – 16 THE GREAT DEBATE NO! (Julian Roberts): Difficult to classify people in a multi-racial society Police officers (the ones most likely to be making decisions about the race of a suspect) have no training or expertise in these matters Information might result in discrimination against ethnic groups that appear to be over- represented in the statistics YES! (Thomas Gabor) Why should academics, criminal justice personnel and political leaders determine what the public can and cannot know? We live in a free society, where censorship is unacceptable. If some ethnic minorities are more involved in crime, shouldn’t the public have a right to know? THE GENERAL SOCIAL SURVEY Victimization survey that interviews people by telephone (random-digit dialing) In 2004, sampled 24,000 individuals over the age of 15, in households across Canada Respondents asked about their victimization experiences, and their perceptions of crime and the criminal justice system THE DARK FIGURE OF CRIME GSS instrumental in revealing the “dark figure of crime” (around 66% of all crimes) In
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