CRIM 104 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Auguste Comte, Noxious Stimulus, Poverty Threshold

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THE FUNCTIONALIST APPROACH
-anomie theories and sub cultural theories are related to structural functionalism
-draws parallel between the social order and organic life
-society seen as series of integrate parts working to ensure the continuation of the organism
-Saint-Simon emphasize the importance of moral order
-One of the first to view society as functional mechanism
-Auguste Comte coined sociology
-invoked an organic analogy of society
-Durkheim said crime was normal
-influenced by Simon and Comte
-crime helped to define/shape collective consciousness
-crime and punishment maintained the society’s fundamental values
TALCOTT PARSON
-founder of structural functionalism
-influenced by Durkheim
Parson’s four functional imperatives
-imperatives had to be achieved for society to survive
-Adaptation=society had to adapt to environment to obtain certain resources
-Goal attainment= society had to define its goals and strive to achieve
-integration= society had to regulate/coordinate inter-relationship of its sub system
-latency= society had to maintain conforming behaviors by resolves and motivating
individuals to conform
Parson’s four part of the social system
-what parson believed to the main components of the social system
-each part has different function for society’s survival
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-FAMILY produces children, teaches them fundamental values
-SCHOOL provides basic knowledge and work skills, and re-enforce fundamental values
-RELIGION supports basic values, provides spiritual avenue to cope with social and
personal problems
-ECONOMY allows individual to work, earn and spend
-society/social system strive for balance or stability, equilibrium
MERTON’S ANOMIE STRAIN THEORY
-anomie is the dysfunction between culture and social structure
-argue that culture goal and institution means causes crime. People become highly competitive
and engage in cut throat behaviors with the END JUSTIFY THE MEANS
MERTON’S MANIFEST AND LANTENT FUNCTIONS
-manifest functions are those that society intends, and are often set out as formal
institutional goals
-latent functions are those that society does not intent; they are usually informal and may
have undesirable outcomes
SUBCULTRE THEORIES OF DELIQUENCY
-emerged during 1950 in the great depression after World War 2, times were changing
ALBERT COHEN
-wrote delinquent boys: the culture of the gang in 1955
GANG SUBCULTRE
-gang delinquency most prevalent amongst lower class males
-short term hedonism, short term pleasure, often causing discomfort to others
-gang delinquency is the result of STATUS FRUSTRATION and STATUS
DEPRIVATION
-when lower class tries to compete for social status in school, they would find
they could not meet standards of middle class measuring rod. As a result they
would feel status deprivation or status frusta ration
-this causes strain
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