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Earth Sciences
EASC 108
Glyn Williams- Jones

130125 Internal structures: Magnetic fields Strentght order: Sun, Gas giants, Earth, Mercury, Mars (remnant) Internal structure of the Terrestrials - internal structure of the terrestrial planets are similar. All have a: o core – high density metal o mantle – medium density rocky materials (ex. Silica [SiO ]) 2what makes glass, hot, semi-solid o crust – lowest density rocks (ex. Granite and Basalt) - Lithosphere: coolest and most rigid layer of rock near planet’s surface, upper part of mantle— all of crust - Layers due to differentiation – heavy materials sink to the bottom while lighter material rise to the top (iron = heavy = core) Internal structure of the Jovians - Magnetic fields of gas giants indicate large amounts of circulating, electrically-conducting materials o Jupiter & Saturn: far more dense than earth’s layers o Uranus & Neptune: less differentiation (than Jupiter, Saturn) o Terrestrials Planetary Heat - planets gain their initial internal heat energy by 3 main methods: o 1. Kinetic o 2. Gravitational  heat energy o 3. Radioactivity  radio isotopes to date age of solar system  specific types of elements releasing energy  releasing thermal energy (by decaying)  reasons why we have volcanoes (thermal breakdown) Planetary Heat Loss - planets spend the rest of their lives losing internal energy to space o hot rock rises and cooler rock falls in a mantle convection cell, energy is radiated into space, conduction (radiation, conduction, convection)  three key mechanisms to lose heat!!! 1. Conduction: atoms vibrate strongly causing atoms next them to pick up energy 2. Convection: heat causes fluids to move, the hot fluid rises, the cold fluid sinks 3. Radiation: photons of electromagnetic light carry energy away from objects - Conduction only, convection, radiation  less important on earth o (picture)!!!! Planetary Heat Loss: Convection - solid convection causing volcanism o Hot rock rises and cooler rock falls in a mantle convection cell, conduction carries heat in the rigid lithosphere, eruptions bring hot lava up from the interior, energy is radiated into space - Solid convection causing movement, but no crustal break-up o Too thick to rip apart, thin enough to o Internal forces causing compression on the thin-outer crust - Solid convection causing crustal break-up – Earth only o Movement of material moving the continental plates o Forming new ocean crust, subduction zones (on the other side of new ocean crust), continual movement of convection at speed of 4-5cm/year - Earthquakes and volcanism along break-lines Planetary Heat Loss: Radiation - Radiation inside Worlds o The hotter the world, the stronger, the more shorter-wavelength radiation it emits o Sun: hottest, visible light o Gas giants: infrared (IR) o Rocky: some reflected radiation, some IR, some microwave and radio The Planets - Mercury o The innermost planet  Second most smlallest after pluto  Very dense – metal and rock; large iron core  No atmosphere…close to Sun (0.4 AU)  Cratered highland and vast, smooth terains like maria  Key factor in dating terrestrial planning  Revolves quickly and rotates slowly (a 6 month day) o Day temperature: 452 C o o Night temperature: -183 C o o No gas at all, no atmosphere - Venus o Earth-like size, desnity, mass, location o Covered in thick clouds of CO 2  Surface T: 480 C  Surface P: 92 atm o Mapped by radar – mainly low plains covered by volcanic flows o Many volcanic features o Was extremely volcanic in its past - Earth o A binary planetary system o N (26%) O (212) Atmosphere  Surface T: 16 C  Pressure: 1 atm o Complex geological history
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