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[Script of Lec_3] The Politics of the Notables.docx

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HIST 151
Paul Sedra

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The Politics of the Notables 5/15/2012 2:54:00 PM  The Tanzimat :-  Albert Hourani  Ottoman studies was concern of formal political structure as oppose to … o Informal collisions politics. o He, as historian, want to look at middle eastern history not as its been traditionally looked at from above, that is, from the perspective of the Ottoman rollers in Istanbul o Further, his interested to look at this history from below, from a local prospective  From perspective of the peoples who were rolled by the Ottomans. Why is this important from Hourani perspective? Why it is actually necessary to look at history from below ?  The reason why, these urban notables that Hourani talks about, they are important they were the people, at the end of the day, who made the implementation of Ottoman policy in the Arab provinces possible. o They are the people who made the implementation of imperial policy at the local level possible.  Ottoman governors and Officials came from far off, spoke often a different language, did not usually stayed long enough to strike root.  The standing forces, the military forces that they rely on, were normally not sufficient to allow them to impose their authorities unaided.  To roll at all they had to rely on local intermediaries.  And these they find already existing.  Urban notables. Urban notables …  Their power rest on two factors … o On the one hand, they most posses access to authorities  So be able to advice, to worn, and in general to speak for society, or some part of it, at the rollers curt. o On the other hand, they most have some social power of their own.  Whatever its form an origin.  Which is not dependent on roller.  And gives then a position of accepted as natural leadership. What form might that independent social power take?  Could have some religious origins. o Immam. o A scholar. o Education  If one has had an education of some sort, probably the most important type of education one can get would be the preeminent institution of higher learning within the Islamic world, which was in Cairo a place called Alazhar University.  The source of education, Official Islam, The Islam of the state o The position of a particular type charisma. o The ability to heal.  the performance of miracles, the position of charisma, there has more deal to do with popular perceptions.  This is associated with popular Islam. o Wealth. o A reputation of a family. o If a person has his own militia. o Control of trade. o In association with one of the gills. o Any sort of descent from the prophet or his family. The Tanzimat …  It means reorganization o The terms refer to a program of reform which is not unlike that which is implemented by Mehmed Ali in Egypt. o But here with the Tanzimat we are talking about an empire wide bases.  The Ottoman reformers initially concern themselves with military affairs. o Indeed as early as the 1770s, Russian hands had prompted the Ottoman sultan Abdulhamid I to begin to draw upon military expertise from Europe.  Military reformed though is pursued in earnest under this fellow “Salem III”, who rolled the empire from 1789 – 1806.  Historians tend to identify the discipline, the regimentation, that Salem introduced into the Ottoman army, they label this “The nizam Aljadeed”  The new Order.  the emblematic of this “Nizam Aljadeed” in the first instance were the European style uniforms that the Ottomans introduced at this time.  But this was not nearly a cosmetic shift. o It went well beyond the surface. o Because as we see in the Egyptian case, training academies are began and technical academies.  In order to institutionalize this sense of discipline, this sense of regimentation. By the time we get to the 1820’s to 1830’s …  A concerted effort is made to cultivate political support for this reform program. o Among leading Muslim clerics, fellows that we often identify in middle eastern history as “The Ulama”.  Which means a person who is learned, who has an education. o The sultan seeking to develop a constituency for reform within this group of Ulama. o When this reform was resisted, sultan Mahmoud II, Ultimately resolves to eliminate opponents of his reform program.  The resistance put down in valiant fashion. o Mahmoud II was the successor to Salem III, he also the keen observer of what happening in Egypt, a keen observer of Mehmed Ali  He acted as ruthlessly as Mehmed Ali did. During Mahmoud III reign from 1808 to 1839 …  He saw to increase the efficiency of the Ottoman state though centralization and bureaucratization. o It was an expedient policy for the Ottoman state. o The emergence of the Ottoman civil service has began. When the traditional Ottoman infantry core, known as the “janissaries”, that a lead military unit based in Istanbul and derived very heavily from Devshirme; a form of slavery.  When they voiced opposition to the sultan’s plans, he track them down and he kill them. o A massacre between 30,000 and 40,000 men. Why would the janissaries a
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